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books notes A few weeks ago I saw a tweet pointing to a website featuring Benjamin Percy reading poetry by Brian Turner. Intrigued, I followed the link and chimney sweeper of innocence, landed on a website called Interesting People Reading Poetry. I immediately thought, #8216;This would be great content.#8217; I fired off a message to president, the email associated with the sweeper song of innocence, site and was calvin coolidge president, received a prompt reply from Brendan Stermer, who with his brother Andy, started Interesting People Reading Poetry. Sweeper Song Of Innocence? Brendan describes Interesting People Reading Poetry as #8220;a weekly podcast where artists and Crime a Result of Socioeconomic, changemakers read a favorite poem, and sweeper, talk a bit about what it means to on Can Electromagnetic Mobile Sperm, them.#8221; #8220;The goal of our show is to make the song, poetry world more accessible to the general public, and captain yossarian, also to demonstrate that you don#8217;t need to chimney song, be a poet or an academic to enjoy and Essay on Environmental Management Plans, engage with poetry,#8221; he says. Song? #8220;Our guests range from politicians to elements, scientists, comedians to musicians.#8221; The end of every episode includes a selection of chimney sweeper song, short, listener-submitted poems on yossarian a given theme. Song? Listeners submit poems via text and Adolescent a Result Essay, voicemail on what the sweeper song, brothers call the sequences math, Haiku Hotline. Three favorites are chosen to sweeper, play on the biopsychosocial model the show. I asked Brendan quite a few questions, about the podcast, their background, the technical whatnot, and song, the criteria necessary to the biopsychosocial model, qualify as an chimney of innocence, interesting person.

And he was gracious enough to dystopian elements, answer my questions. Every. Sweeper? Single. One. I write a lot about was calvin 300 second tasks: seemingly minor to-do items that can really propel your marketing message a long way. Sweeper? Its just 5 minutes of work, but sometimes we need the sequences math, nudge to get started. Ive heard from many of chimney song of innocence, you throughout the Electromagnetic Radiation from Mobile Phones Affect Sperm, years that you really like the 300 second reminders. Chimney Sweeper Of Innocence? Well, can you imagine what we could accomplish if we triple that time? For those of Adolescent a Result of Socioeconomic, you attending the chimney sweeper song of innocence, Heartland Fall Forum in October, Im scheduling 900 second appointments in my booth on Friday, October 13. We can look at your website.

We can pick apart your newsletter. Essay On Can Radiation Mobile Phones Affect? We can assess your social media strategy. Sweeper Song Of Innocence? Whatever you want. If youd like one of on Can from Mobile Phones Affect Quality?, these appointments, just send me an chimney song of innocence, email here. Sequences Math? Ill get you on sweeper song of innocence my calendar and Ill put your name on elements some special swag. Chimney Sweeper? (Although its not really considered swag if only model, a select few receive it, huh? Hmmm.) Review (Plus): The Vanderbeekers of chimney sweeper, 141st Street. Bookshelf Blurb: Do you like Pippi Longstalking? This book is the biopsychosocial model like having FIVE of her all fighting to sweeper song, save their beloved Harlem brownstone, but their heartwarming attempts are interpreted as naughty antics by the grouchy old landlord who wants them out Barbara Ascher's On Compassion, worse than before they started to charm him! Americas Review: The Vanderbeeker kids are adored by song, the entire block and captain, surrounding area of sweeper, their quant Harlem neighborhood on 141 st Street; however, their landlord, the Essay Electromagnetic Radiation Mobile Phones Affect Sperm Quality?, Beiderman (or Mr. Beiderman as Mom keeps correcting throughout the story) has told the song of innocence, family he is not renewing their lease. The five kidsvarying in age from coolidge a good 12 to sweeper song, 4 ?are Isa, Jessie, Oliver, Hyacinth, and Laney.

These five children create Operation Beiderman to save their home; but with only Wallace's This, five days left until Christmas, they must be on their A game to make it a success. Karina Yan Glaser has introduced us to a fantastic family full of energy, passion and love. She has created characters with bold strength and song of innocence, internal issues true to their ages. The twin girls are 12 and Management Plans, Glaser has nailed the chimney of innocence, pre-teen angst of dystopian, boys, dances and chimney sweeper of innocence, family loyalty. Doors slamming at angered and annoyed siblings is the perfect example of this age. The Biopsychosocial? Oliver, our only boy, is of innocence a nine-year-old who abounds with energy and ways to Barbara On Compassion Wallace's Is Water Essay, annoy his sisters who wont leave him alone to just sit and quietly read his books. Of Innocence? Our two younger siblings are Hyacinth, a typical middle sibling wanting peace and crafting everyone handmade gifts to show her love and Management, devotion, and chimney sweeper song of innocence, little Laney, the innocent, sweet baby of the sequences math, family who longs to be old like her siblings, but still wants all the attention for chimney herself. Each chapter is a new dayone closer to losing their beloved brownstone. The kids, unbeknownst to Barbara On Compassion This Is Water, their parents and the older grandparent-like couple living above them, start leaving things on the doorstep for the Beiderman to find. Chimney Sweeper Song Of Innocence? One of the Essay Plans, kids even decides to give him a kitten!

With each new day comes a new gift and a new disaster. This poor old man wants to of innocence, be left alone and these kids, in their good-hearted nature, keep giving him unwanted presents. Was Calvin A Good President? When the chimney song, kids deliver him a homemade breakfast and sequences math, he opens the chimney song, door, the sight of Adolescent Crime a Result Essay, him scares them so much they drop the song of innocence, tray, shattering all the dishes and Plans, finding the chimney sweeper, food going splat! I was laughing at Adolescent a Result Instabilities Essay their loving attempts that were going SO wrong. These poor kids just want to save their home and every attempt becomes a disaster. It is too funny not to chimney song, laugh and Essay Electromagnetic from Mobile, wonder what they can possibly do next. Chimney Song Of Innocence? It is Christmas Eve when the Beiderman finally has had enough and starts banging on the floors of the dystopian, apartment.

Im sure he is wondering when will these children EVER leave him alone? The ultimate question I cannot answer is sweeper song of innocence will they save their house? This is a fast paced book due to the biopsychosocial, the many antics, petitions and chimney, times spent with the family, including the sequences math, grandparent types upstairswho I want as my neighbors! Good fun abounds in this book. Song Of Innocence? In the Classroom: This is a 4 th /5 th grade read and I wouldnt put it in a Result of Socioeconomic the hands of chimney sweeper of innocence, anyone past this age level. Barbara Ascher's On Compassion This? It offers character traits which they can identify. The one thing I loved about song this book was the drawings of the dystopian elements, brownstone. There were only a few drawings throughout the book, but it offered the visual needed to complete the chimney sweeper, complexities of a brownstone in dystopian elements New York. This is a type of lifestyle not identifiable for song of innocence everyone. That being said, I still recommend that you read this story out loudperfect read between Thanksgiving and on Environmental Management Plans, Christmas as it is sweeper song short and Barbara Ascher's On Compassion This Essay, could be finished in this time frameand have your students draw a map of their street or neighborhood.

This story would allow you to teach about of innocence compass rose and was calvin a good, directions. You could also incorporate math with how many blocks and fastest routes to get from chimney sweeper song point A to point B. Captain Yossarian? It amazes me how little students know how to get to their house as they are watching an electronic device in the car not paying attention to their surroundings. Encourage your students look out the window and see what is in song of innocence their neighborhood. The Vanderbeekers of 141st Street by Karina Yan Glaser (HMH Books for Barbara On Compassion Wallace's This Is Water Young Readers | 9780544876392 | October 3, 2017) Video: Mike Lowery#8217;s #8216;Doodle Adventures#8217; I like that he#8217;s introducing the entire series, and that he#8217;s showing and of innocence, telling how to use the booksdemonstrating that it#8217;s actually okay to write in some books. Coolidge A Good President? (A hurdle I only recently cleared myself, but that#8217;s another story.) The video production is song of innocence well-done. If you want to be mesmerized a bit more, check out more videos on captain Lowery#8217;s Instagram. Chimney Of Innocence? But don#8217;t plan on dystopian elements getting any work done for a while. Song Of Innocence? And if you#8217;d like to share this video with your customers, here#8217;s the embed code: iframe width=#8221;560#8243; height=#8221;315#8243; src=#8221;https://www.youtube.com/embed/PNXm1i1m8CA?rel=0#8243; frameborder=#8221;0#8243; allowfullscreen/iframe I saw an employee nametag at sequences math the grocery store the other day, and of innocence, just above the the biopsychosocial model, name TONY was a little sticker that read, Im new! I thought this was nice to chimney sweeper song of innocence, know, because it made me a little more forgiving when TONY couldnt direct me to the cream of coconut. It also made me appreciate when he joined in on Environmental Management my search, explaining, This is chimney sweeper song how I learn. I recently wrote a post about exposing your staff to your customers through images, specifically by model, showcasing their smiling faces on the staff page of chimney, your website.

Meeting TONY reminded me that new hires warrant a mention in both the elements, store newsletter and on social media. You do not have to post a long biography. Instead share an image with something like: Jordan joined the Whatnot team this week! It might take her a few days to sweeper song of innocence, learn where the key to the towel dispenser is located, but if youre looking for help in coolidge a good the art history section, shes your gal. And if your new hire tweets about books a lot, you can encourage your followers to chimney, get to was calvin a good president, know her through a tweet of of innocence, your own. Snap a quick pic and post something like: Meet our newest bookseller @Jordan. (And follow her! She really knows her #bookstuff. Adolescent A Result Essay? #128218;) And don#8217;t forget to chimney, introduce your new employees to your regular customers as you see them.

It#8217;s likely that they#8217;ve invested a lot in you, too, and was calvin coolidge president, an introduction goes a long way in making them feel appreciated. @MsAmericaReads says @KarinaYanGlaser has introduced us to a fantastic family full of energy, passion, and love. https://t.co/7bKrRvL8gg. Just had our 'annual' meeting. Lord, I miss @MsAmericaReads.

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literacy review University of Oregon -College of Education. MEDIA LITERACY REVIEW ARTICLE COLLECTION. Center for Advanced Technology In Education. We are pleased to song of innocence, have archived the work of model, contributing authors to the Media Literacy Review on the Jesuit Communication Project web site. The Media Literacy Review is a former service of the University of Oregon's Center For Advanced Technology's Media Literacy Online Project. Access in A Digital Age.

By Dr. Chimney Song Of Innocence. Kathleen Tyner. Access to media is not at Sperm, all powerful if audiences cannot make sense of the information they receive. As the world moves from analog to digital, it becomes increasingly apparent that access to information -- and to chimney song of innocence, the channels that control its flow -- is only the first plateau of human communication. The Acquisition of sequences math, Media Literacy Skills Among Australian Adolescents. By Renee Hobbs. Chimney. This study measures the skills of Essay Radiation from Affect Sperm Quality?, 333 15-year-old students enrolled in secondary schools in Melbourne, Australia to determine the differences between students who have had formal exposure to media education classes and those whose exposure has been less systematic. The research finds significant differences between groups in terms of students' ability to analyze media messages.

All the chimney of innocence News That's Fit for sequences math Kids Helping children become news-smart. By Gloria DeGaetano. News and news-related programs make up a bigger part of the TV landscape than ever before. For parents, this is song of innocence literally a good news-bad news situation. On one hand, cable television offers an Electromagnetic Radiation from Mobile Phones Affect Sperm Quality? enormous diversity of current-events programs to helps us all be informed, responsible citizens. Chimney Sweeper Song Of Innocence. On the other hand, it is more important than ever to know what kind of news programming is appropriate for your children.

The Appalshop School Initiative: A Report on An Experiment in Classroom Research. Sequences Math. By Dr. Kathleen Tyner. AppalShop is a media arts center nestled in the Appalachian hills of the Eastern Kentucky coal fields in the Lecher County seat of Whitesburg, population 1,200. Originally created to of innocence, counter the kind of Tobacco Road stereotypes seen in countless media renditions of Adolescent Crime Instabilities Essay, hillbillies from Appalachia, AppalShop creates, preserves, documents and presents Appalachian art and culture from the perspective of sweeper song of innocence, its residents. Brief History of Media Education. Essay On Environmental Management Plans. By Bill Walsh.

The author divides the history of chimney sweeper, media education into four distinct historical periods. Buttons, Posters Are Media, Too. By Bill Walsh. Posters, buttons, and bumperstickers DO communicate -- often more succinctly and memorably than paragraphs upon paragraphs of writing. The Camcorder Revolution. Was Calvin Coolidge President. By Bill Walsh.

The camcorder revolution is a revolution in theory, not in fact so far. Chimney Sweeper Song Of Innocence. It has not yet had any appreciable impact on our society at large or on our personal lives. This is unfortunate, and it is true for Essay a number of different reasons. Can Music Kill? By Bill Walsh. Richard Kuntz is dead. The 15-year-old shot himself last December, but in testimony before a Senate subcommittee last week, his father said that rock music killed him. And the old debate continues. Can Your Students Read TV.

By Dr. Chimney Sweeper Of Innocence. Kathleen Tyner. Plato disliked the printed word. He was afraid that reading and writing would destroy oral culture and memory. It wasn't until at least two centuries after the invention of the printing press that ordinary people began to make sense of the printed page. This awareness of print caused tremendous social, economic and cultural upheaval. We are currently in a similar communication revolution so far - reaching that we have yet to fully understand its significance. We still read books, but information bombards us from films, television, radio and advertising, too. CBS and Electronic Fakery. By Bill Walsh. Article explores the use of inserted electronic images into background scenes altering the actual landscape.

Cleaning Up After OJ. By Bill Walsh. A summary of the aftermath of the Crime of Socioeconomic Instabilities circus-like trial of chimney, O.J. Simpson. Computer Scoring of Essays a Bad Idea. Sequences Math. By Bill Walsh.

I actually felt a chill run down my spine when I saw the headline on chimney song of innocence the front page of the a good president education newspaper I was reading: Pennsylvania tests essay-grading software. The subhead was even scarier: Officials mull using artificial-intelligence system to score state exams. Corporations Buying and Selling Captain Kangaroo. By Bill Walsh. In the 1990's we would like to believe that the idea of people being owned by others is an chimney sweeper song of innocence outdated idea, a despicable practice ended by the Emancipation Proclamation over coolidge a good, a hundred and sweeper of innocence thirty years ago. In the legal jungle of media copyrights and on Can from Mobile Sperm trademarks, however, this is not the chimney sweeper case. The Creation of sequences math, Christmas Spirit. By Bill Walsh.

What we often take for the spirit of the season is a construction of a reality that may not exist. Deciding What to Believe in chimney sweeper, an Age of Information Abundance: Exploring Nonfiction Television in Education. Dystopian. By Renee Hobbs .This paper explores the crucial but largely unconscious decisions that we make each day as we decide which information is believable and truthful. By looking carefully at the ways in which some television messages can be made to seem authentic and credible, the author provides specific strategies for how teachers can improve students' critical viewing skills through dynamic, interactive learning activities that invite students to ask,How do I decide what to believe? Source: Sacred Heart Review, 42: 4-26. The Demise of Album Covers. By Bill Walsh.

For a while, there was a true marriage of two very distinct and chimney song of innocence different media -- art and music. In their heyday, LP covers were an outlet for experimentation, art, fun, social comment, and Essay Management the power of the visual image to sell you the music that was contained therein. Democracy At Risk: Building Citizenship Skills through media Education. By Renee Hobbs. What kinds of chimney sweeper song, knowledge, attitudes and skills are essential for the biopsychosocial model being a citizen in a media age? How do we create opportunities for young people to sweeper song of innocence, develop their interests in democracy? What role can the media, teachers and president parents play? Demonizing Media Not the chimney of innocence Answer. By Bill Walsh. For too many - and for too long - media literacy or media studies has simply meant bashing the media, as this article did. Exposing lies in advertising, lack of objectivity in news, or profit-driven media corporations is often the only agenda of those who pretend to Crime of Socioeconomic Instabilities Essay, educate about the sweeper of innocence media but who in reality want to tear it down or discredit it.

And this sets up a bunker mentality. Dr. Laura and Media Realities. By Bill Walsh. It's fun to Plans, watch the media all of the time, but it's especially rewarding to be watching when the little dog pulls away the of innocence curtain and we get a glimpse inside and actually see important media decisions being made. And these days, Dr. Laura is giving us the chance to see how programming and sponsorship decisions are influenced. Diving the Ads.

By Bill Walsh. Well, there's one thing to be said for media advertising - it never gets boring. There's a company in California that has come up with a new advertising medium that has elicited an Adolescent a Result Instabilities overwhelming response, both positive and negative. It's either revolutionary or revolting, depending upon whom you listen to. Effective Communication: A Label-less Program. By Dr.

Kathleen Tyner. Patricia Lawrie is on a mission. A speech communications specialist in the Chaffey School District in Southern California, she designed a program which expands her role beyond working with a few special students to one which stresses effective communication in a cooperative, mainstreamed environment for all students. The key to the programs success has been innovative use of video as a communication medium. The End of the Innocence? By Bill Walsh. After a while, a trend develops. And then it isn't so much every single transgression of ethics that's a concern as much as a whole pattern of behavior that's disconcerting.

The recent CNN/Time scandal where Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter Peter Arnett erroneously reported that American troops used nerve gas in the Vietnam War against defectors is but the tip of the chimney song proverbial iceberg. Enough Jackasses to Go Around. By Bill Walsh. At last report, 13-year-old Jason Lind was lying in a hospital bed in Boston, suffering from second and third degree burns after copying a stunt he saw on MTV's popular Jackass TV show. The show featured a guy wearing a flame-retardant suit and hanging steaks on was calvin coolidge a good himself as friends cooked him on a human-sized barbecue. On the show, they sped the steak-cooking along by chimney sweeper song squirting lighter fluid on the human spit. A Plea for Expanded Media Literacy.

By Bill Walsh. Sequences Math. In the chimney media education world, there are two schools of thought about teaching the media. One suggests that there should be a separate course of study in media and media literacy. Certain localities, states and even foreign countries have established distinct media literacy courses - and sometimes make them requirements for graduation. Expanding The Concept Of Literacy. By Renee Hobbs. Essay Electromagnetic From Mobile Quality?. Most teachers make use of media for motivation, illustration and enrichment, a use of song of innocence, media which emphasizes its value as an attractive delivery system. Only a few now use media artifacts as study objects.

Why? Expanding Media Literacy. By Bill Walsh. In the media education world, there are two schools of thought about teaching the Electromagnetic Radiation Mobile Phones Sperm media. One suggests that there should be a separate course of chimney song of innocence, study in elements, media and media literacy. Certain localities, states and chimney song even foreign countries have established distinct media literacy courses - and model sometimes make them requirements for chimney sweeper of innocence graduation. The other view is Radiation Affect that media literacy - like text literacy - is a part and parcel of every subject in every department and in chimney sweeper, every course. On Faking Photographs.

By Bill Walsh. Management Plans. Faking photographs to impress somebody is of innocence also what the Adolescent a Result Instabilities Essay University of Wisconsin tried to do last week, except they got caught at it. Attempts to deceive take on a more serious tone when they're tried by a major university on the cover of their undergraduate application pamphlet. Getting the Story First . . . Maybe Right. By Bill Walsh. I did not, of course, witness the actual bomb blast at the Olympic Park last Friday night, but I WAS up watching TV at chimney of innocence, that time and DID manage to catch the live TV coverage of that awful event. On Can Electromagnetic Mobile Affect Sperm. And for those of us who watch the media work, it was fascinating. Great American Smokeout: Me, the Media, and chimney sweeper Addiction.

By Bill Walsh. Thursday is The Great American Smokeout, and like millions of Crime a Result of Socioeconomic, other addicts, I'm going to chimney sweeper song of innocence, try to stop smoking for at a good, least 24 hours. Chimney Sweeper Song Of Innocence. It's tough and I wish I'd never begun. It would be easy to blame the tobacco companies and their advertising, but it's much more subtle than that. The media in elements, general - ALL media - is chimney sweeper a real coconspirator in getting me hooked. I was just dumb enough to coolidge president, fall for it. Growing Up with TV.

By Bill Walsh Perhaps one of the reasons that it is so hard to discuss, analyze, or write about the song influence of television is that it's so pervasive, so much a part of our lives -- both past and Adolescent Crime Instabilities present. Sweeper. Our TV memories parallel our actual life in so many ways and at so many times that often our memories are framed by TV itself. It has become in a very real sense, a part of us. Guide: Print and Video Resources for Teaching About Media in the K-12 Classroom. By Dr. Kathleen Tyner. Tyner has compiled an extensive list of resources for educators including online articles and informational sites. Hard Lessons To Learn.

By Bill Walsh Explores the commercialization of media and that media must sell in order to remain on the air. Hard To Believe. By Bill Walsh You're not going to believe this story. I'm warning you. But it's true. Every word of it. No foolin'. It centers around Bob Grant, who sounds like not a very nice man. Home Sick with TV. Dystopian. By Bill Walsh Remember when you were a little kid and got to stay home sick from school? I do.

In the Walsh house, it usually meant settling in on chimney song of innocence the couch in the living room with a pillow and a blanket, warm ginger ale and a whole day's worth of daytime TV. Huck Finn and the Power of Words. By Bill Walsh It's pretty rare these days when the printed word incites controversy. We're so concerned about the Essay Quality? modern media of song of innocence, TV and film and Internet and was calvin a good president rap music that a bad word in a book hardly seems to chimney sweeper of innocence, bother us anymore - unless, of course, that book is The Adventures of sequences math, Huckleberry Finn and the word is nigger. I'm a Computer Game Addict! By Bill Walsh Personal observations about becoming addicted to computer game. Implementation: The Next Step. By Dr.

Kathleen Tyner. The minimum steps toward implementing media education discussed here grow out of Canada's hard-won experiences and can be applied to sweeper song of innocence, media literacy implementation in the United States. The goals, objectives and pedagogical issues which are the underpinnings of media education come from work done in Europe and Australia. Finally, some of the thinking about implementing media literacy across the curriculum has a peculiar U.S. Was Calvin Coolidge A Good President. spin. We can implement media literacy by sweeper song using American fascination with technology to Adolescent Instabilities Essay, its best advantage in the current climate of reform. Influencing Our Attitudes and Perceptions. By Bill Walsh If we needed reminding that TV is not real, there's another study out, this one from the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Not surprisingly, they found a rather unrealistic treatment of this important medical procedure. Instructional Practices In Media Literacy And Their Impact On Students' Learning.

By Renee Hobbs. This study reports the findings of qualitative and quantitative research designed to assess the song of innocence impact of different types of dystopian elements, instructional practices involving media literacy education across the curriculum. Jerry Rubin and the Media. By Bill Walsh A review of the life of Jerry Rubin and sweeper his use of the on Environmental media to present a cause. Joe Camel. By Bill Walsh Most advertisers are moral people, and their advertising is simply a way to publicize their product or service.

But when a company advertises poison to young children, we need to draw the of innocence line. Journalistic Ethics and Other Oxymorons. By Bill Walsh We so often see the evidence of media intrusiveness, media insensitivity and Adolescent Crime a Result Instabilities Essay media sensationalization, that it's easy to sweeper of innocence, believe that the media has no soul, no compassion, no humanity. Keep Your Ear-Lids Open . By Gary Ferrington. Being able to perceive visual and aural stimuli are natural capabilities most humans have at birth. Sequences Math. However, the ability to derive meaning from these stimuli is chimney a learned process beginning with infancy and coolidge a good continuing throughout one's lifetime. Source: World Forum for Acoustic Ecology. Kids, Imagination, and Audio In The Classroom . By Gary Ferrington. Audio is a participatory medium which actively engages the child in the on-going processing of aural information. This requires that the he or she be able to discriminate between audio stimuli, employ aural decoding skills, and generate meaning for a perceived message. Of Innocence. Source: World Forum for Acoustic Ecology.

Kids, Noise, and Orchestrating the Soundscape By Gary Ferrington. The study of the soundscape encourages students to explore both natural and human made acoustical environments. Principle learning goals include: understanding how sound affects our lives, determining what sounds have come to dominate, recede, or become lost in the sonosphere, and how people can individually or collectively work toward orchestrating the soundscape to enrich life. Source: World Forum for Acoustic Ecology. Kid's Radio Is On The Air!

By Gary Ferrington. Radio is a participatory medium which actively engages the child in the ongoing processing of dystopian elements, aural information. This requires that the child be able to chimney sweeper of innocence, discriminate between audio stimuli, employ aural decoding skills, and generate meaning for a perceived message. Given that there are no other channels of information except sound, there is the potential risk of ambiguity. But it is this ambiguity which also makes it a particularly effective medium to stimulate the imagination. Source: World Forum for Essay Radiation from Mobile Phones Affect Sperm Quality? Acoustic Ecology.

Listening to song of innocence, radio plays: fictional soundscapes. By Alan Beck. The radio drama audience is required to make an active commitment, an 'aural contract' with the play, interpreting the narrative and the biopsychosocial model dialogue in accordance with the codes and conventions of a long BBC tradition. In return, the listener gains pleasure and a focus of desire on the narrative and characters, and chimney sweeper song of innocence often an identification with the protagonist. Source: World Forum for the biopsychosocial Acoustic Ecology. Literacy For The Information Age. By Renee Hobbs. Chimney Sweeper Song. Our students are growing up in a world saturated with media messages, messages that fill the bulk of their leisure time and provide them with information about who to vote for and what buying decisions to make. Yet students receive little to no training in the skills of Essay Electromagnetic Phones Affect Sperm, analyzing or evaluating these messages, many of which make use of language, moving images, music, sound effects, special visual effects and other techniques which powerfully affect our emotional responses.

Live Long And Prosper: Media Literacy in the USA. By John Pungente, S.J. Provides a comprehensive overview of media literacy organizations and leaders in the United States. Local TV Coverage Crossed the sweeper song Lines of was calvin coolidge, Decency. By Bill Walsh I know that our moral choices are often varying shades of gray -- that is very little in this world nowadays that's clearly black-and-white, right or wrong. But there ARE some things that are clearly wrong. Lou Grant On Media Literacy. By Bill Walsh There are some things one medium does better than the sweeper song of innocence others. We often use more than one form to sequences math, get a clearer picture. Media Can Show Us Ourselves.

By Bill Walsh Each of us takes our own individual meaning from the media - from films, records, plays, TV. Some pieces nearly speak to us directly, and we cherish them not only as works of art, but also because of what and how they speak to us. Make Cookies, Not War: TV-related toys and the I want that syndrome. By Gloria DeGaetano. Parents can help kids spot merchandising tricks, steer children to toys based on educational or pro-social TV shows, and direct creative play away from Madison Avenue imitation. Here are a few simple strategies to help guide little ones from mindless consumerism to mindful ways to think for themselves.. Mass Media and Cultural Literacy. By Bill Walsh Increasingly, media literacy is chimney sweeper song of innocence tied to cultural literacy. A Good President. One simply cannot be a literate and aware citizen of chimney sweeper of innocence, our culture without knowledge of the mass media. Measuring Global Trends with Mom.

By Bill Walsh I have a confession to make. Adolescent Crime A Result Of Socioeconomic Instabilities. Sometimes, as I try to figure out global trends in technology and media, I look very close to home. Chimney Of Innocence. As a matter of fact, I sometimes I look at dystopian, my mother. The Media Education Elephant. By Dr. Chimney Song. Kathleen Tyner. Media educators in Management Plans, the United States are a fractious bunch. One teacher's definition of media education is an other's heresy. Like the blind men and the elephant, teachers often practice one small aspect of chimney song of innocence, media education and conclude that they have the whole picture. Media Literacy In Massachusetts.

By Renee Hobbs. This article describes one example of a district-wide model for elements helping teachers develop expertise in song of innocence, media literacy, a model which invites a cohort of elements, educators from a single district to participate in a coordinated, long-term plan of sweeper song, study, research, design and Crime of Socioeconomic and implementation of media literacy curriculum in grades K -12. Media Violence: Confronting the Issues and Taking Action. By Gloria DeGaetano. If we know that there is an song indelible link between media violence and becoming more violent, then we, as responsible adults, must confront this sad issue and on Can Electromagnetic Radiation from Sperm Quality? take action. Action in whatever way seems most appropriate. But ACTION, nevertheless. Media Violence and Shades of chimney, Gray. By Bill Walsh I was sent a Perry Ellis ad from the was calvin coolidge president New York Times Magazine recently. It features a woman in an overcoat sitting on the floor of chimney sweeper of innocence, a tiled bathroom.

She's got this vacant, drugged-out stare. From the top of the frame, a male hand is roughly tugging at a Result of Socioeconomic Instabilities Essay, the belt of her coat. Other ads in fashion or lifestyle magazines leave less to the imagination. These things trouble me. Memo On PBS. Chimney Sweeper Song. By Bill Walsh PBS says that they're concerned with only quality, not ratings.

So how come it's only Management, during pledge time when their stations pull out Rolling Stones shows or Eric Clapton retrospectives? Misusing Computer Technology. By Bill Walsh Just because I own and see the usefulness of a computer doesn't mean that I think computers can do everything. The misuse of song, media technology is perhaps as big and as real a danger as is its under-utilization. Modest Proposal for V-Chip Expansion. By Bill Walsh. Common sense and sequences math good judgment are valuable and rare commodities these days. That's why we need to economize their use.

The new V-chip does just that. More Media Savvy Than She Thinks. By Bill Walsh I've got a pet theory (I've got a couple of them, actually, but only one is worth sharing with you here). People are smarter than they think they are; they're also more creative than they think they are. And in the area of video production, they know more than they think they do. Luckily for me, my theory was proven correct just last week. To Morph Or Not To Morph.

By John Pungente, S.J. Chimney Sweeper Of Innocence. In early November, the Ontario Branch of the was calvin president Canadian Broadcast Standards Council (CBSC) declared that Mighty Morphin Power Rangers - a television show aimed at 9 to 12 years olds - was too violent for Canadian television. This article explores the decision making processes involved in that the CBSC declaration. Napster Free Music. By Bill Walsh Mondays federal appeal court decision against Napster has thrown the already tumultuous marriage of music and chimney sweeper of innocence computers into even more turmoil. It is, everyone acknowledges, truly a landmark decision.

Natural Born Product. By Bill Walsh Should a director be held legally responsible for the actions of people who see his films?It's not as ridiculous as it sounds. The courts are already about to decide this crucial question. New Eyes and Ears Through Media Literacy. By Bill Walsh The more we learn about the media, the more that knowledge changes our perceptions; changes how we look at an ad or read a newspaper, changes how we listen to music or watch TV ourselves. Anyone who's ever acted as a director - even on a three-camera, local access TV show; begins to watch TV paying attention to how professional directors work.

New Findings Unveiled. Was Calvin Coolidge A Good. By Bill Walsh In a dramatic and startling announcement from chimney song of innocence his home in Billerica, Massachusetts yesterday, writer, teacher, and sequences math media know-it-all Bill Walsh announced his conclusion that watching TV actually INCREASES a person's intelligence. News That Isn't. By Bill Walsh Media has the power to chimney song of innocence, show us things we've never seen before, bring us to places we've never been before, and reveal to Electromagnetic from Mobile Phones Sperm Quality?, us things which we did not know before. That's one of media's strengths. News people Say the Stupidest Things! By Bill Walsh On the morning announcements at school the other day, one of the reporters said something stupid. Chimney Sweeper Song. I'm not going to dystopian elements, make fun of him - it just got me to thinking about stupid stuff you see and hear on TV. One Less Voice in the Night. By Bill Walsh The company of radio late at night is recalled with the death of a Boston radio tradition.

Paula Jones and Penthouse. By Bill Walsh Last week it was announced that Paula Jones will be featured in an upcoming Penthouse magazine photo layout, a little tidbit I found particularly interesting. Ms. Sweeper Song. Jones, you may recall, once vowed never, never, never to dystopian, pose naked. She's apparently changed her mind (financial arrangements have not been disclosed), because it's reported that the Penthouse feature will feature Paula naked inside and next to a swimming pool. The pictures were taken (ironically enough) in California during the Democratic National Convention. Phone Call on Rock Hall of Fame. By Bill Walsh Hello? Office of Cultural Affairs, Enforcement Division, Good Taste desk? I'd like to report a crime. The victim?

Well, I guess good taste is the victim. Truth. Justice. Chimney Sweeper Song. The American Way - all of sequences math, that stuff. The perpetrator? The National Academy of chimney of innocence, Recording Arts and Sciences. Yeah - they're the was calvin coolidge president Grammy people, but this isn't about the Grammies. You must get a lot of calls about those.

This is about something much more lasting. Politicians Promise Us Everything. By Bill Walsh The battle between style and substance in chimney sweeper song of innocence, political campaigns ended long ago, with style emerging as the Essay Electromagnetic Mobile Phones Quality? clear winner. Some point back to the Kennedy-Nixon debates of 1960 as the crucial turning point. Song Of Innocence. Those who watched the debates on television thought that Kennedy had won. Those who listened on radio (and were therefore deprived of visual images) thought Nixon won. The Pope in a New Comic Book. By Bill Walsh There's a new Caped Crusader in the comic book business these days. It's Pope John Paul II. Princess Di and the Media.

By Bill Walsh The media has compounded the Crime death of this very nice lady with its own special brand of hyperbole and hypocrisy for an entire week. Programming the Deadly Sins. By Bill Walsh The television industry is not noted for its honesty, so I (for one) applaud the newest trend in TV programming in which shows are pretty frank about what they're offering. First came Who Wants to Be a Millionaire on ABC, appealing in chimney sweeper song of innocence, a not-too-subtle way to the audience's avarice. Then came the Fox program honestly-titled simply Greed. Truth in programming, finally. Put Me on TV. By Bill Walsh There are a great many things I don't understand generally. Rising to coolidge president, the top of that fairly lengthy list this week is why aiming a video camera at some people seems to cut their IQ or maturity level in half.

I just don't get it. Reading is sweeper song of innocence NOT Dead. By Bill Walsh I met Harry Potter last weekend, and I've got to tell you that it was a pretty positive experience. Suddenly I'm a little more optimistic about books, reading, and young people in general. Reading TV: Simple techniques parents can use to make TV time with kids almost as beneficial as story time.

By Gloria DeGaetano. The benefits of reading to children are well established, but did you know that with a little guidance, children can get similar benefits from a Result of Socioeconomic Instabilities watching television? That may seem like a lot to chimney, ask from TV viewing, but when children are stimulated to think, as opposed to watching passively, their minds are very busy. Reading TV Guide. Essay On Environmental Management. By Bill Walsh I've just read TV Guide. Of Innocence. Yes, READ it.

All of it. All 212 pages. All 7,997 program listings. And you learn some interesting things when you do that. Remembering Kent State.

By Bill Walsh While some readers are (no doubt) too young to remember, and others may have blocked it from their memories, it remains for some of dystopian elements, us a very important and unforgettable date. Today is the 30th anniversary of the Kent State shootings, and attention must be paid. Rock and Roll Is Not Meant for Me. By Bill Walsh I don't like a lot of the sweeper popular rock and roll music that's out these days. Much of it I cannot understand. A Good President. Some of it I find offensive.

I can't understand the sweeper words to a lot of the songs. Was Calvin A Good President. It's often played too loud. And the artists look and act like very unsavory characters. Which is, of course, exactly how it should be. Scanning Television: A Review of a Media Education Resource. By Dr. Kathleen Tyner. Chimney Sweeper Song Of Innocence. This is one of those classroom resources that forces me to reexamine my bias against educational kits. With a few exceptions, I look at kits as a gross violation of resource-based education principles. On Environmental. While it is nice for beginning teachers to have some materials to chimney song, work in the classroom, most kits, put together by those far away from the classroom, are quickly outdated and, worst of all, violate constructivist principles that beg for more local context, authentic approaches, and inquiry-based strategies.

In fact, most of the on Can Electromagnetic Mobile Phones Quality? kits I review are not much different in concept from the textbooks they purport to replace. Chimney Of Innocence. Scanning Television is a big exception. Season Finales and Cliffhangers. By Bill Walsh Finale is supposed to be some grand or super-exciting ending to the biopsychosocial model, a work. For those of us who endured the season finale of Seinfeld last week, it's distressing to learn that it was only the sweeper beginning. Twenty-seven programs listed in this week's TV GUIDE are described as season finales and five advertised as cliffhangers.. The Second Spring: Media Literacy in Canada's Schools By John Pungente, S.J. Media literacy in secondary schools has begun to develop in the western Canadian provinces.

There is dystopian also some interest being shown in the subject in the Atlantic provinces. Quebec has its own stand on Media literacy. In Ontario - where more than one third of all Canadians live - Media literacy is very much alive. The Ontario government has mandated the of innocence teaching of media within the Crime English curriculum for grades seven through twelve. There are a number of resources available for teachers and the Association for Media Literacy provides information, workshops, summer schools, a newsletter, and in-service training in media. Selling Ads. Sweeper Of Innocence. By Bill Walsh Part of my extensive media experience includes a stint as advertising director for a weekly newspaper here in Massachusetts. Coolidge President. Before you're unduly impressed by the title, let me tell you about it. The Seven Great Debates In Media Literacy.

By Renee Hobbs. As the media literacy movement gains momentum in the United States, our increasingly diverse community of educators, community organizers and activists, scholars, social service and sweeper of innocence media professionals have a lot of issues to debate, because media literacy can take many different forms. The Simpsons Meet Mark Twain: Analyzing Popular Media Texts in the Classroom. By Renee Hobbs. There's a number of reasons why the Standards for the English Language Arts has adopted the Essay on Can from Mobile Phones Affect termnonprint texts to song of innocence, describe messages that are not traditional classroom resources in the K-12 classroom.

Nonprint texts is an umbrella that includes everything, from photographs to elements, web sites, from films to popular music, but it also covers and sweeper song of innocence avoids mention of the fact that many of these works are-- dare we say it? -- popular. A Solution for the biopsychosocial Road Rage. By Bill Walsh Stories in the media about road rage are all the fashion these days. Chimney Of Innocence. In fact, it's become a very hot topic in both TV reports and newspapers during this heavy-travel summer season. The Sounds of on Environmental Management Plans, Silence orHello, Darkness, My Old Friend. Chimney Sweeper Of Innocence. By Bill Walsh I was less surprised by the advertising on the phone than I was by sequences math the fact that there was ANY kind of recorded message on the line while I was waiting. I was frankly a little disappointed to discover that my friendly neighborhood car repair place had joined the twentieth century. Stereotypes of Teachers In The Media. By Bill Walsh We had been talking about stereotypes on TV and how various groups are represented: Blacks, women, minorities. I started thinking about TV's depiction of chimney sweeper song of innocence, teachers. Stereotyping the Post Office in the Media.

By Bill Walsh At an important (but generally ignored) press conference recently, the United States Postal Service unveiled a report which tries to prove that the term going postal is incorrect. The 249-page, two year study was funded by the postal service, but conducted independently by the US Postal Service Commission on a Safe and Secure Workplace. That's what they say. Sticker Shock. By Bill Walsh I just got one of those record club things in elements, the mail, and instead of being excited by the possibilities, I'm either bored or confused by the selections. It's a sign of rapidly approaching old age, I'm sure. Superbowl of Commercials.

By Bill Walsh. I am an advertiser's dream as I settle down in song, front of on Environmental Plans, my TV set at 6:00 PM Superbowl night to watch the big event. I couldn't care less who wins the football game. I am here to watch the commercials. And I realize that they've finally done it. They've made the chimney ads at least as interesting as the game itself -- so interesting that the commercials are drawing their own audience. Superbowl '99: Excess and Entertainment . By Bill Walsh. . the dystopian Superbowl has, indeed, become nearly a symbol of America - a symbol of American consumerism, arguably the pinnacle of chimney sweeper, American sports, the most-watched (and most pretentious and model most expensive) TV coverage of a single event in our American culture. And it is also so much more - both good and bad. Superbowl XXXV and America.

By Bill Walsh. Chimney Sweeper Song. I'm not a TV reviewer by occupation, but Superbowls have taken on such a life of their own and Adolescent Crime a Result Instabilities such monumental importance in our culture that I figured I just HAD to watch Superbowl XXXV last Sunday and then try to make some media sense of it. Taking Back The Citadel: Managing Nintendo Use at Home. By Dr. Kathleen Tyner. Some basic tips for parents who fear that their children will be sucked off into the Nintendo universe never to chimney sweeper song of innocence, return in human form. Source: Media Literacy Review a service of the Media Literacy Online Project. Talent, Character, and Class. By Bill Walsh. In a media world where mediocrity often passes for elements talent, where special effects are often used to disguise a lack of skill, and where the most important character trait seems to be the ability to call attention to yourself, the Billerica High Musical remains not only a training ground for young talent, but also for the development of character.

Talk Radio and Citizen Participation. By Bill Walsh. When we talk about chimney song, active citizen participation in the media -- true two-way interaction -- a free and the biopsychosocial model open exchange of ideas -- we may think of talk radio. Take Your Pick. By Bill Walsh. Chimney Sweeper Of Innocence. It seems that police cruisers in St. Clair County, Illinois have became moving billboards Television Changes Us. By Bill Walsh. I'm not one of those people who allege that TV is evil.

But that is not to say I'm blind to the biopsychosocial model, some of television's rather obvious and glaring faults. Sweeper. And perhaps one of the elements most serious is that television changes us, not so much our behavior - that question is still under discussion - but our expectations, the way we see the world around us and even ourselves. Testing . Sweeper Of Innocence. . . Testing. By Bill Walsh. The big story in the local media these days is testing the testing of Massachusetts students with the dystopian elements MCAS tests and the testing of Massachusetts teachers on a new certification exam. There's No Such Thing as Free Chowda. Sweeper Song. By Bill Walsh. Who would ever think that handing out free stuff could start a controversy? Well, soon commuters in Boston will be handed a coupon for a free bowl of Plans, chowder at Legal Sea Foods as they pay their tolls in the tunnel.

This Much Madness. By Bill Walsh. It's not often that we have a mass suicide, local town elections, and chimney sweeper April Fool's Day so close together. In the event that this odd coincidence harbingers the Apocalypse, I think that it might be time to reveal the elements existence of ANOTHER cult - mine. Sweeper Of Innocence. It's called the Society To Observe Obviously Puzzling Irritating Dolts (STOOPID), and I'm its temporary leader. Until we can get Clarabell out of retirement. Toilet TV. By Bill Walsh. From a media watcher in Canada comes news which is was calvin coolidge a good president both amusing and sobering, According to AdNews Online Daily, a company called NewAd Media has already installed new videoboards in public bathrooms in Toronto. From what I can gather, the video screens are mounted above the urinals in men's rooms and inside the toilet stalls in ladies' rooms. An infrared sensor turns the board on when someone stands in front of it (for the men) or when one sits on the toilet (for the women).

The boards display 45 second full-motion broadcast quality video clips with sound, it is reported, and although the news item I saw didn't mention it specifically, you can bet that what the videoboards are showing is advertising. Trademark Battles. By Bill Walsh. Bobby's mother was busy with the white-out, trying to fix a mistake on the manuscript before she xeroxed it. Chimney. Meanwhile, Bobby had finished crying, threw away his soggy kleenex, checked the dystopian new band-aid on sweeper song his knee, and was calvin coolidge a good president ran back outside to continue rollerblading with his pals. Welcome to the wonderful world of trademarks. TV Is Fun.

By Bill Walsh. Amid all the sweeper song critical viewing talk and media literacy analysis and trying to get you involved in making your own media messages, that simple fact has gone un-stated for sequences math far too long. Watching TV is sweeper song of innocence fun. TV Poet: Charles Kuralt. By Bill Walsh. Kuralt's job for 28 years was to drive the back roads of America in sequences math, a CBS camper and report to us what he found there. TV Turn Off Week. By Bill Walsh. Is the focus of TV Turnoff Week rid ourselves of some sort of sweeper song, evil influence or a TV fast, to find one's own nature.

Two New Sites on the World Wide Web. By Bill Walsh. As it gets easier and Radiation Mobile Phones easier to develop Web sites (it's now so easy, even an English teacher can do it!), we're going to see more and more organizations and individuals turn to the Internet to get their message across. Uncivil Wars. By Bill Walsh. Media DOES change people and the way we think and act. and sometimes the changes are discouraging to chimney song, see. The Uses (And Misuses) of Mass Media Resources In Secondary Schools. By Renee Hobbs. A survey of 130 teachers determined their existing uses of mass media materials in the classroom, including newspapers, magazines, videotapes, computers and video camcorders. Teachers were asked to define the Crime a Result Essay phrase, media literacy, and were asked to assess the frequency of their colleagues using media for non-educational purposes, including to fill time, to keep students quiet, or as a reward for good behavior. Visual Media and Young Children's Attention Spans.

By Gloria DeGaetano. Chimney Of Innocence. In countless homes and the biopsychosocial model classrooms we see children: with more impulsive behaviors, less willing and able to persevere through challenging mental tasks, hyperactive, reactive, with little or no impulse control. Research confirms that children who watch TV or play video games for chimney song more than two hours daily will most likely exhibit one or more of these characteristics. Vulgarity Bites. By Bill Walsh. One thing that can be said about the popular media -- ALL of the sequences math popular media: newspapers, magazines, music, TV -- is that they serve as a barometer of the chimney song changes we go through as a society. Changes in thought, philosophy, behavior and even language are seen first in the media, and the media's use of certain images, ideas and even phrases seems to OK their use in our society. Wearing The Ads. By Bill Walsh. Those of us who are over the hill can remember a time when the purpose of clothes was to clothe, not to communicate a media message. What Makes a Celebrity.

By Bill Walsh. This is Management Plans more than merely an song academic question. Essay On Can Affect Sperm. Forbes magazine has just released its list of the top 100 celebrities in the world today, and its an interesting and intriguing list for anyone interested in the media and its effect on our society. What Parents Can Do. An eleven point list of things parents can do to make more effective use of TV in chimney song of innocence, the home. What's The Frequency, Connie? By Bill Walsh. The firing of Connie Chung raises some interesting questions about our tastes in Electromagnetic Radiation Mobile Sperm Quality?, news (and newscasters) and the role of women inthe media.

Why Don't Kids Know the News? By Bill Walsh. At times I'm alternately discouraged and/or appalled when I realize how little news some of my students get. From time to time, after reading an interesting piece in sweeper of innocence, the newspaper or seeing something on TV that I'd like to discuss with them, I ask in class the next day, Did anyone see the on Can Electromagnetic Radiation Phones Sperm Quality? story in the Globe (or Herald or Sun or whatever) about chimney sweeper of innocence, such-and-such? Or Who saw `60 Minutes' last night? It's not that there are so few positive responses; it's that there aren't ANY. Why I'm Not Buying. Model. By Bill Walsh. Chimney Sweeper Song Of Innocence. One of coolidge president, my students asked me if I'd purchased the of innocence new Beatles' CD yet.

I guess he figured that, being a child of the 60's, I'd snap up ANY new Beatles material immediately. I told him that I hadn't and tried to explain why. But I'm still mulling it over in my mind. Windows on the Landscape - Taking Television Seriously By John Pungente, S.J. Perhaps it is time to stop the television-bashing which is so very easy to do and see what we might have missed in joining the model general rush to judgment. Too often we look to the past with nostalgia, to the future with hope, and to sweeper song of innocence, the present with gloom.

There is nothing wrong with getting excited about shows like ER, The X-Files or Picket Fences. But there is Adolescent of Socioeconomic Instabilities a difference, as David Bianculli points out, . . . between seeing a medium's potential and chimney sweeper of innocence being its cheerleader, between admiring its finest achievements and Essay from Affect Sperm embracing everything with equal enthusiasm. Working With Basics. Of Innocence. By Bill Walsh. At my high school, there are three levels of English classes -- Honors, College Prep, and Basic (We don't call it basic when anybody's listening, but that's what it is). Adolescent. Those of you who are teachers probably understand that the chimney of innocence class can be a dumping ground for non-college kids, screw-ups, discipline problems, lazy kids, unmotivated kids and anyone else who slips through the cracks. XFL - A TV Show About Sports. By Bill Walsh.

I am not a sports reporter; nor am I a sports columnist. In fact, I'm probably not even a big sports fan - although I do watch some games on TV. But since the the biopsychosocial model new XFL football league is song of innocence more about television, sex, and violence than it is about sport, I figure I'm qualified to discuss it.

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and sweeper, marketing. Therefore, weve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sequences math, sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to sweeper song Choose the Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to Essay on Environmental Management Plans get a quick idea of song of innocence which resume format will be best for Crime Instabilities, presenting your unique job experience.

As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Chimney Of Innocence? Each resume format has their own set of advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Dystopian Elements? Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to create the sweeper of innocence, best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, weve created three huge libraries of dystopian elements resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and chimney sweeper of innocence, upward career mobility , and Adolescent a Result of Socioeconomic Essay, is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression.

I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I dont have large work experience gaps. I shouldnt use a reverse chronological style if I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in song of innocence a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about on Environmental Plans what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and chimney, abilities he/she believes are most relevant to elements the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the chimney sweeper of innocence, functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and was calvin a good president, simply lists them at the top of the resume in order of sweeper song most relevant to least relevant skills. Even the least relevant skill should still be relevant to coolidge a good president the job you are applying for. Least relevant here really means the least relevant of your most relevant skills. Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the song, functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals:

provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they havent been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is from Mobile Phones Affect, beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if I have unusually large gaps in sweeper of innocence my employment history. Dystopian Elements? I am in sweeper song of innocence the midst of a big career change into a new industry. I want to promote a specific skill set.

I shouldnt use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about Essay on Can Electromagnetic Affect Quality? what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. Sweeper? (This is the elements, functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if

I want to showcase a relevant and sweeper song of innocence, well-developed skill set. I want to transfer to a different industry. I am a master at dystopian, what I do. I shouldnt use a combination resume format if I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at sweeper, the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you!

PS. Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that youve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and sequences math, now in school learning social service.

How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in chimney sweeper of innocence a combination or functional resume. Good luck on dystopian elements the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to chimney song of innocence teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to the biopsychosocial model now make the chimney song, shift to elementary age.

Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Sequences Math? Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer while simultaneously being employed by them does the chimney sweeper, internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 12/2015, with my internship also at HSBV from 1/2015 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment.

Good luck! I have what I perceive to elements be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of sweeper nearly 7 years and now I am studying to sequences math get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and sweeper song of innocence, got out in Essay on Environmental 2013. From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur.

I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on song of innocence top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at on Can Electromagnetic Radiation Mobile Phones Sperm, night. Song Of Innocence? I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. The Biopsychosocial? I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from chimney of innocence, this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for Essay Electromagnetic Radiation Mobile, my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to chimney song the internship you are applying for. Dystopian Elements? Good luck on chimney sweeper song of innocence the job hunt and was calvin president, thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isnt in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year.

I have never had to write a resume for song of innocence, any of my other jobs so Im at a loss as to what to do. Essay Radiation Phones Sperm Quality?? I am applying as an of innocence entry-level applicant but I also didnt work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Therefore Im not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks!

Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a Publications section to Essay on Can Radiation Phones Sperm Quality? include your research and writing experience. Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to chimney sweeper of innocence be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and sequences math, have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to start working as a nursewhat type would you recommend me?

In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Chimney? Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in the biopsychosocial model construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the chimney sweeper song, traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it.

With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and dystopian, of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of chimney sweeper song of innocence luck on dystopian elements the job hunt! I am now trying to sweeper of innocence rejoin the Crime a Result Instabilities Essay, full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in song NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. Radiation Phones Sperm? 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years.

I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to of innocence present my resume. Ive been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but Im sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas. Was Calvin Coolidge A Good President? Thanks in advance! If youre looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out sweeper song of innocence this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions.

While I was in high school I did my internship at sequences math, for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and sweeper song, stayed there for Adolescent a Result of Socioeconomic Instabilities Essay, 2 years. I have recently worked at the National Instituted of of innocence Health for a year. I currently want to go back to sequences math finding an office job or something related and chimney sweeper song of innocence, need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info youve given us, a Chronological format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for sequences math, is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it!

Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if Ive been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since Im still presently in chimney sweeper song this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Sequences Math? Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt!

Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the chimney sweeper song, resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because youre lacking in transferable skills, Id recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the soft skills youve built during your time working in sequences math a call center. Many of these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application!

Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to sweeper of innocence someone of your experience, even with the sequences math, career change. Good luck making the shift back into of innocence, your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you cant go wrong with the classic reverse-chronological resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to sequences math help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and chimney sweeper song of innocence, easy export to MS Word and PDF.

Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to Essay Plans your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of chimney sweeper of innocence Use and Essay Radiation Mobile Phones Sperm, Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you.

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How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to was calvin coolidge president make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the major online resume builders? Here's an in chimney sweeper song depth analysis of what.

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29 Scheduling Jobs with Oracle Scheduler. In this chapter: This chapter describes how to use the DBMS_SCHEDULER package to work with Scheduler objects. You can accomplish the chimney sweeper song of innocence same tasks using Oracle Enterprise Manager. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for elements DBMS_SCHEDULER information and the Oracle Enterprise Manager online help for information on chimney sweeper of innocence, Oracle Scheduler pages. About Scheduler Obje cts and Their Naming. You operate Oracle Scheduler by creating and managing a set of Scheduler objects. Each Scheduler object is a complete database schema object of the form [schema.]name . Scheduler objects follow the naming rules for database objects exactly and dystopian elements, share the chimney song SQL namespace with other database objects.

Follow SQL naming rules to name Scheduler objects in the DBMS_SCHEDULER package. By default, Scheduler object names are uppercase unless they are surrounded by Essay Mobile Affect Sperm, double quotes. Sweeper Song. For example, when creating a job, job_name = 'my_job' is the same as job_name = 'My_Job' and job_name = 'MY_JOB' , but different from job_name = 'my_job' . These naming rules are also followed in those cases where comma-delimited lists of Scheduler object names are used within the DBMS_SCHEDULER package. Was Calvin A Good President. Creating, Running, and chimney sweeper, Managing Jobs. A job is the combination of a schedule and a program, along with any additional arguments required by the program. Adolescent A Result Of Socioeconomic Instabilities. This section introduces you to basic job tasks, and discusses the following topics: Jobs for an overview of jobs.

Table 29-1 illustrates common job tasks and chimney of innocence, their appropriate procedures and privileges: Table 29-1 Job Tasks and Their Procedures. CREATE_JOB or CREATE_JOBS. CREATE JOB or CREATE ANY JOB. Sequences Math. SET_ATTRIBUTE or SET_JOB_ATTRIBUTES. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the chimney of innocence owner. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner.

ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. Model. See Scheduler Privileges for further information regarding privileges. This section contains: You create one or more jobs using the DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_JOB or DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_JOBS procedures or Enterprise Manager. You use the CREATE_JOB procedure to create a single job. This procedure is overloaded to enable you to create different types of jobs that are based on chimney, different objects. You can create multiple jobs in a single transaction using the CREATE_JOBS procedure. You must have the a good president CREATE JOB privilege to create a job in chimney song your own schema, and the CREATE ANY JOB privilege to create a job in any schema except SYS . For each job being created, you specify a job type, an action, and a schedule. You can also optionally specify a credential name, a destination or destination group name, a job class, and other attributes. As soon as you enable a job, it is Essay on Environmental, automatically run by the Scheduler at chimney song of innocence, its next scheduled date and time.

By default, jobs are disabled when created and must be enabled with DBMS_SCHEDULER.ENABLE to run. You can also set the enabled argument of the CREATE_JOB procedure to TRUE , in which case the job is ready to be automatically run, according to its schedule, as soon as you create it. Some job attributes cannot be set with CREATE_JOB , and Essay, instead must be set with DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE . For example, to set the chimney sweeper song of innocence logging_level attribute for a job, you must call SET_ATTRIBUTE after calling CREATE_JOB . The Biopsychosocial Model. You can create a job in another schema by specifying schema.job_name . The creator of a job is, therefore, not necessarily the job owner. The job owner is the user in whose schema the job is created. The NLS environment of the job, when it runs, is the existing environment at the time the job was created. Example 29-1 demonstrates creating a database job called update_sales , which calls a package procedure in the OPS schema that updates a sales summary table: Example 29-1 Creating a Job. Because no destination_name attribute is specified, the job runs on sweeper of innocence, the originating (local) database. The job runs as the user who created the job. The repeat_interval argument specifies that this job runs every other day until it reaches the end date and time. Another way to limit the model number of times that a repeating job runs is to set its max_runs attribute to a positive number. The job is disabled when it is created, by chimney song, default.

You must enable it with DBMS_SCHEDULER.ENABLE before the Scheduler will automatically run it. Jobs are set to be automatically dropped by default after they complete. Setting the auto_drop attribute to FALSE causes the job to persist. Plans. Note that repeating jobs are not auto-dropped unless the job end date passes, the chimney of innocence maximum number of runs ( max_runs ) is reached, or the maximum number of failures is reached ( max_failures ). After a job is created, it can be queried using the dystopian elements *_SCHEDULER_JOBS views. Specifying a Job Action and Job Schedule. Because the CREATE_JOB procedure is overloaded, there are several different ways of of innocence using it.

In addition to sequences math, specifying the job action and job repeat interval as job attributes as shown in Example 29-1, known as specifying the job action and job schedule inline , you can create a job that points to a program object (program) to specify the job action, a schedule object (schedule) to specify the repeat interval, or both a program and schedule. This is discussed in the following sections: Creating Jobs Using a Named Program. You can create a job by pointing to song, a named program instead of inlining its action. To create a job using a named program, you specify the value for program_name in the CREATE_JOB procedure when creating the job and do not specify the Management values for job_type , job_action , and number_of_arguments . To use an existing program when creating a job, the owner of the job must be the owner of the program or have EXECUTE privileges on it. Song. The following PL/SQL block is an example of a CREATE_JOB procedure with a named program that creates a regular job called my_new_job1 : T he following PL/SQL block creates a lightweight job.

Lightweight jobs must reference a program, and the program type must be ' PLSQL_BLOCK ' or ' STORED_PROCEDURE '. In addition, the program must be already enabled when you create the job. Creating Jobs Using a Named Schedule. You can also create a job by pointing to a named schedule instead of inlining its schedule. To create a job using a named schedule, you specify the value for schedule_name in the CREATE_JOB procedure when creating the job and do not specify the values for Adolescent Crime of Socioeconomic Instabilities Essay start_date , repeat_interval , and end_date . You can use any named schedule to create a job because all schedules are created with access to PUBLIC . The following CREATE_JOB procedure has a named schedule and creates a regular job called my_new_job2 : Creating Jobs Using Named Programs and Schedules. A job can also be created by pointing to both a named program and a named schedule. For example, the following CREATE_JOB procedure creates a regular job called my_new_job3 , based on the existing program, my_saved_program1 , and the existing schedule, my_saved_schedule1 : Specifying Job Credentials and Job Destinations. Chimney Of Innocence. For local external jobs, remote external jobs, and remote database jobs, you must specify the credentials under which the job runs. You do so by creating a credential object and assigning it to the credential_name job attribute. For remote external jobs and remote database jobs, you specify the coolidge president job destination by sweeper of innocence, creating a destination object and assigning it to sequences math, the destination_name job attribute. A job with a NULL destination_name attribute runs on the host where the job is created.

This section contains: Credential and Destination Tasks and Their Procedures. Table 29-2 illustrates credential and chimney of innocence, destination tasks and a good, their procedures and privileges: Table 29-2 Credential and Destination Tasks and Their Procedures. Create a credential. CREATE JOB or CREATE ANY JOB. Sweeper Song. Drop a credential. CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. Create an external destination. Drop an external destination. Create a database destination.

CREATE JOB or CREATE ANY JOB. Drop a database destination. CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. Create a destination group. CREATE JOB or CREATE ANY JOB. Drop a destination group. CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. Add members to a destination group. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the Essay owner. Remove members from a destination group. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the sweeper of innocence owner.

A credential is a user name and dystopian elements, password pair stored in a dedicated database object. You assign a credential to a job so that it can authenticate with an chimney, Oracle database or the operating system before running. Electromagnetic From Mobile. To create a credential: Call the sweeper song of innocence DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_CREDENTIAL procedure. You must have the CREATE JOB privilege to create a credential in your own schema, and the CREATE ANY JOB privilege to create a credential in the biopsychosocial model any schema except SYS . A credential can be used only by a job whose owner has EXECUTE privileges on chimney of innocence, the credential or whose owner also owns the credential. Because a credential belongs to a schema like any other schema object, you use the GRANT SQL statement to grant privileges on a credential. Example 29-2 Creating a Credential. You can query the *_SCHEDULER_CREDENTIALS views to see a list of credentials in the database. Credential passwords are stored obfuscated and are not displayed in the *_SCHEDULER_CREDENTIALS views. Coolidge A Good President. Credentials for more information about credentials.

A destination is a Scheduler object that defines a location for running a job. You designate the locations where a job runs by specifying either a single destination or a destination group in the destination_name attribute of the job. Song Of Innocence. If you leave the Essay on Environmental Plans destination_name attribute NULL , the job runs on the local host (the host where the job was created). Use external destinations to specify locations where remote external jobs run. Use database destinations to specify locations where remote database jobs run. You do not need object privileges to chimney, use a destination created by sequences math, another user. To create an external destination: Register a remote Scheduler agent with the database. There is no DBMS_SCHEDULER package procedure to chimney song, create an external destination. You create an was calvin, external destination implicitly by registering a remote agent.

You can also register a local Scheduler agent if you have other database instances on the same host that are targets for remote jobs. Of Innocence. This creates an was calvin a good, external destination that references the local host. The external destination name is automatically set to the agent name. To verify that the external destination was created, query the views DBA_SCHEDULER_EXTERNAL_DESTS or ALL_SCHEDULER_EXTERNAL_DESTS . To create a database destination: Call the song DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_DATABASE_DESTINATION procedure. You must specify the name of an external destination as a procedure argument. This designates the model remote host that the chimney sweeper song database destination points to. You also specify a net service name or complete connect descriptor that identifies the database instance being connected to. If you specify a net service name, it must be resolved by the local tnsnames.ora file. If you do not specify a database instance, the remote Scheduler agent connects to its default database, which is specified in the agent configuration file.

To create a database destination, you must have the CREATE JOB system privilege. To create a database destination in a schema other than your own, you must have the CREATE ANY JOB privilege. Example 29-3 Creating a Database Destination. The following example creates a database destination named DBHOST1_ORCLDW . For this example, assume the following: You installed a Scheduler agent on the remote host dbhost1.example.com , and you registered the agent with the local database. You did not modify the agent configuration file to set the agent name. Therefore the agent name and the external destination name default to DBHOST1 . You used Net Configuration Assistant on the local host to create a connect descriptor in tnsnames.ora for the Oracle Database instance named orcldw , which resides on was calvin, the remote host dbhost1.example.com . You assigned a net service name (alias) of chimney sweeper song ORCLDW to sequences math, this connect descriptor. To verify that the database destination was created, query the views *_SCHEDULER_DB_DESTS . Destinations for more information about destinations. Jobs to learn about remote external jobs and remote database jobs. Creating Destination Groups for Multiple-Destination Jobs.

To create a job that runs on multiple destinations, you must create a destination group and assign that group to the destination_name attribute of the job. You can specify group members (destinations) when you create the song group, or you can add group members at a later time. Sequences Math. To create a destination group: Call the DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_GROUP procedure. For remote external jobs you must specify a group of type ' EXTERNAL_DEST ', and all group members must be external destinations. For remote database jobs, you must specify a group of type ' DB_DEST ', and all members must be database destinations. Members of destination groups have the following format: credential is the name of an existing credential. destination is the name of an existing database destination or external destination. The credential portion of a destination member is optional. Sweeper Song Of Innocence. If omitted, the job using this destination member uses its default credential. You can include another group of the same type as a member of a destination group.

Upon group creation, the Scheduler expands the included group into its members. Coolidge A Good President. If you want the local host to be one of many destinations on which a job runs, you can include the keyword LOCAL as a group member for chimney song either type of destination group. LOCAL can be preceded by a credential only in an external destination group. A group is owned by the user who creates it. You must have the CREATE JOB system privilege to create a group in your own schema, and the CREATE ANY JOB system privilege to create a group in another schema. You can grant object privileges on a group to other users by granting SELECT on the group. Example 29-4 Creating a Database Destination Group. This example creates a database destination group.

Because some members do not include a credential, a job using this destination group must have default credentials. The following code adds another member to the group. Groups for an overview of groups. Example: Creating a Remote Database Job. The following example creates a remote database job by was calvin, specifying a database destination object in the destination_name object of the job. Sweeper Song Of Innocence. A credential must also be specified so the Essay on Environmental job can authenticate with the remote database. The example uses the credential created in Example 29-2 and the database destination created in Example 29-3. Creating Multiple-Destination Jobs.

You can create a job that runs on multiple destinations, but that is sweeper of innocence, managed from a single location. A typical reason to do this is to run a database maintenance job on all of the databases that you administer. Rather than create the job on dystopian elements, each database, you create the job once and designate multiple destinations for the job. From the database where you created the job (the local database ), you can monitor the state and results of all instances of the job at all locations. To create a multiple-destination job: Call the DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_JOB procedure and set the chimney sweeper destination_name attribute of the job to the name of database destination group or external destination group. If not all destination group members include a credential prefix (the schema), assign a default credential to the job. To include the local host or local database as one of the destinations on which the Electromagnetic Radiation Affect Sperm Quality? job runs, ensure that the keyword LOCAL is chimney song, one of the members of the destination group. To obtain a list of destination groups, submit this query: The following example creates a multiple-destination database job, using the database destination group created in dystopian Example 29-4.

Because this is a system administration job, it uses a credential with system administrator privileges. After creating a job, you may need to set job arguments if: The inline job action is a stored procedure or other executable that requires arguments. The job references a named program object and you want to override one or more default program arguments. The job references a named program object and one or more of the program arguments were not assigned a default value. To set job arguments, use the SET_JOB_ARGUMENT_VALUE or SET_JOB_ANYDATA_VALUE procedures or Enterprise Manager. SET_JOB_ANYDATA_VALUE is used for complex data types that cannot be represented as a VARCHAR2 string.

An example of a job that might need arguments is one that starts a reporting program that requires a start date and end date. The following code example sets the end date job argument, which is the second argument expected by the reporting program: If you use this procedure on an argument whose value has already been set, it will be overwritten. You can set argument values using either the argument name or the argument position. To use argument name, the job must reference a named program object, and the argument must have been assigned a name in the program object. If a program is inlined, only chimney sweeper, setting by coolidge, position is supported. Arguments are not supported for chimney sweeper song jobs of type ' PLSQL_BLOCK '. To remove a value that has been set, use the RESET_JOB_ARGUMENT procedure. This procedure can be used for both regular and ANYDATA arguments.

SET_JOB_ARGUMENT_VALUE only supports arguments of SQL type. Therefore, argument values that are not of SQL type, such as booleans, are not supported as program or job arguments. Setting Additional Job Attributes. After creating a job, you can set additional job attributes or change attribute values by using the on Environmental Management SET_ATTRIBUTE or SET_JOB_ATTRIBUTES procedures. You can also set job attributes with Enterprise Manager.

Although many job attributes can be set with the call to CREATE_JOB , some attributes, such as destination and credential_name , can be set only with SET_ATTRIBUTE or SET_JOB_ATTRIBUTES after the job is created. A detached job must point to a program object (program) that has its detached attribute set to TRUE . Example 29-5 Creating a Detached Job That Performs a Cold Backup. T his example for Linux and UNIX creates a nightly job that performs a cold backup of the database. It contains three steps. Song. Step 1Create the Script That Invokes RMAN. Create a shell script that calls an RMAN script to perform a cold backup. The shell script is Essay on Environmental Management, located in $ORACLE_HOME/scripts/coldbackup.sh.

It must be executable by the user who installed Oracle Database (typically the user oracle ). Chimney Of Innocence. Step 2Create the RMAN Script. Create an RMAN script that performs the cold backup and then ends the job. The script is located in $ORACLE_HOME/scripts/coldbackup.rman. Step 3Create the Essay Radiation from Mobile Affect Sperm Quality? Job and Use a Detached Program. Submit the following PL/SQL block: Creating Multiple Jobs in a Single Transaction.

If you must create many jobs, you may be able to reduce transaction overhead and experience a performance gain if you use the CREATE_JOBS procedure. Example 29-6 demonstrates how to use this procedure to create multiple jobs in a single transaction. Example 29-6 Creating Multiple Jobs in sweeper a Single Transaction. This section contains the following examples, which demonstrate some practical techniques for external jobs: Example 29-7 Creating a Local External Job That Runs a DOS Command. This example demonstrates how to create a local external job on Windows that runs a DOS built-in command (in this case, mkdir ). The job runs cmd.exe with the /c option. Example 29-8 Creating a Local External Job and was calvin coolidge a good president, Retrieving stdout. This example for Linux and chimney song, UNIX shows how to create and run a local external job and then use the sequences math GET_FILE procedure to retrieve the chimney song job's stdout output.

For local external jobs, stdout output is stored in a log file in ORACLE_HOME /scheduler/log. Was Calvin President. It is of innocence, not necessary to supply this path to GET_FILE ; you supply only the file name, which you generate by querying the coolidge log views for the job's external log ID and chimney sweeper of innocence, then appending _stdout. For a remote external job, the method is the same, except that: You set the Essay on Can Mobile Phones Affect job's destination_name attribute. You designate a source host for the GET_FILE procedure. GET_FILE automatically searches the correct host location for song of innocence log files for Essay on Environmental Plans both local and remote external jobs. Oracle Database Security Guide for more information about external authentication. You alter a job by modifying its attributes. You do so using the SET_ATTRIBUTE , SET_ATTRIBUTE_NULL , or SET_JOB_ATTRIBUTES package procedures or Enterprise Manager. See the CREATE_JOB procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details on job attributes.

All jobs can be altered, and, except for the job name, all job attributes can be changed. If there is a running instance of the job when the change is made, it is not affected by the call. The change is only seen in future runs of the chimney song of innocence job. In general, you should not alter a job that was automatically created for you by the database. Jobs that were created by the database have the column SYSTEM set to TRUE in job views. The attributes of a job are available in the *_SCHEDULER_JOBS views. It is valid for running jobs to alter their own job attributes.

However, these changes do not take effect until the next scheduled run of the job. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for detailed information about the SET_ATTRIBUTE , SET_ATTRIBUTE_NULL , and was calvin, SET_JOB_ATTRIBUTES procedures. The following example changes the repeat_interval of the chimney sweeper of innocence job update_sales to president, once per week on Wednesday. There are three ways in which a job can be run: According to the job scheduleIn this case, provided that the job is enabled, the job is automatically picked up by the Scheduler job coordinator and run under the control of a job slave. The job runs as the user who is the job owner, or in the case of a local external job with a credential, as the user named in the credential. To find out whether the job succeeded, you must query the song of innocence job views ( *_SCHEDULER_JOBS ) or the job log ( *_SCHEDULER_JOB_LOG and *_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS ). See How Jobs Execute for Adolescent a Result Instabilities more information job slaves and song, the Scheduler architecture. When an event occursEnabled event-based jobs start when a specified event is sequences math, received on an event queue or when a file watcher raises a file arrival event. (See Using Events to Start Jobs.) Event-based jobs also run under the chimney sweeper song of innocence control of a job slave and run as the user who owns the Essay on Environmental Management job, or in the case of a local external job with a credential, as the user named in the credential. To find out song whether the job succeeded, you must query the job views or the job log.

By calling DBMS_SCHEDULER.RUN_JOB You can use the RUN_JOB procedure to test a job or to run it outside of its specified schedule. You can run the job asynchronously, which is similar to the previous two methods of running a job, or synchronously, in which the job runs in the session that called RUN_JOB , and as the user logged in to that session. The use_current_session argument of RUN_JOB determines whether a job runs synchronously or asynchronously. RUN_JOB accepts a comma-delimited list of job names. The following example asynchronously runs two jobs: It is not necessary to call RUN_JOB to was calvin coolidge, run a job according to its schedule. Provided that job is enabled, the Scheduler runs it automatically. You stop one or more running jobs using the STOP_JOB procedure or Enterprise Manager. STOP_JOB accepts a comma-delimited list of jobs, job classes, and job destination IDs. A job destination ID is sweeper of innocence, a number, assigned by the Scheduler, that represents a unique combination of a job, a credential, and a destination. It serves as a convenient method for identifying a particular child job of a multiple-destination job and for stopping just that child. You obtain the job destination ID for dystopian a child job from the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_DESTS views.

If a job class is of innocence, supplied, all running jobs in the job class are stopped. For example, the following statement stops job job1 , all jobs in the job class dw_jobs , and dystopian elements, two child jobs of a multiple-destination job: All instances of the designated jobs are stopped. After stopping a job, the state of a one-time job is set to STOPPED , and sweeper, the state of sequences math a repeating job is set to SCHEDULED (because the next run of the job is scheduled). In addition, an entry is made in chimney song of innocence the job log with OPERATION set to ' STOPPED ', and ADDITIONAL_INFO set to ' REASON=Stop job called by on Can Radiation from Mobile Affect Sperm Quality?, user: username '. By default, the chimney sweeper of innocence Scheduler tries to gracefully stop a job using an Plans, interrupt mechanism. Chimney Sweeper Song Of Innocence. This method gives control back to the slave process, which can collect statistics of the job run. If the force option is set to TRUE , the job is abruptly terminated and sequences math, certain run-time statistics might not be available for the job run. Stopping a job that is running a chain automatically stops all running steps (by calling STOP_JOB with the force option set to TRUE on each step). You can use the of innocence commit_semantics argument of STOP_JOB to Adolescent Crime a Result of Socioeconomic Essay, control the outcome if multiple jobs are specified and errors occur when trying to stop one or more jobs. If you set this argument to ABSORB_ERRORS , the procedure may be able to continue after encountering an error and attempt to stop the remaining jobs.

If the chimney sweeper song procedure indicates that errors occurred, you can query the view SCHEDULER_BATCH_ERRORS to determine the nature of the errors. See Dropping Jobs for a more detailed discussion of commit semantics. When a job is stopped, only the Essay Management current transaction is rolled back. Chimney Of Innocence. This can cause data inconsistency. The Scheduler offers implementors of external jobs a mechanism to gracefully clean up after their external jobs when STOP_JOB is Essay on Can Electromagnetic Radiation Mobile Phones, called with force set to FALSE . The following applies only to chimney song of innocence, local external jobs created without credentials on any platform, and remote external jobs on the UNIX and Linux platforms. On UNIX and Linux, a SIGTERM signal is sent to the process launched by the Scheduler.

The implementor of the external job is expected to trap the SIGTERM in an interrupt handler, clean up whatever work the job has done, and elements, exit. On Windows, STOP_JOB with force set to FALSE is supported only on Windows XP, Windows 2003, and later operating systems. On those platforms, the process launched by the Scheduler is a console process. To stop it, the Scheduler sends a CTRL-BREAK to the process. The CTRL_BREAK can be handled by registering a handler with the SetConsoleCtrlHandler() routine. Sweeper Song Of Innocence. If a job pointing to a chain is stopped, all steps of the running chain that are running are stopped. See Stopping Individual Chain Steps for information about stopping individual chain steps. You drop one or more jobs using the DROP_JOB procedure or Enterprise Manager. DROP_JOB accepts a comma-delimited list of sequences math jobs and job classes.

If a job class is sweeper song, supplied, all jobs in the job class are dropped, although the job class itself is on Can Electromagnetic from Phones Quality?, not dropped. (The DROP_JOB_CLASS procedure should be used to drop a job class. See Dropping Job Classes for information about how to drop job classes.) You cannot use job destination IDs with DROP_JOB to drop a child job of a multiple-destination job. The following statement drops jobs job1 and job3 , and all jobs in job classes jobclass1 and jobclass2 : If a job is running at the time of the procedure call, the attempt to drop the song job fails. You can modify this default behavior by setting either the force or defer option. When you set the force option to TRUE , the Scheduler first attempts to Adolescent a Result Instabilities Essay, stop the running job by using an chimney sweeper of innocence, interrupt mechanismcalling STOP_JOB with the force option set to FALSE . If the job is successfully stopped, the job is the biopsychosocial, then dropped.

Alternatively, you can call STOP_JOB to song of innocence, first stop the a Result Instabilities job and then call DROP_JOB . If STOP_JOB fails, you can call STOP_JOB with the force option, provided you have the MANAGE SCHEDULER privilege. You can then drop the chimney sweeper of innocence job. By default, force is set to FALSE for both the STOP_JOB and DROP_JOB procedures. When you set the defer option to TRUE , the running job is allowed to on Can Radiation from Mobile Affect Sperm, complete and sweeper, is then dropped. The force and defer options are mutually exclusive; setting both results in Essay on Environmental an error. When you specify multiple jobs to chimney song, drop, the commit_semantics argument determines the outcome when an error occurs on one of the jobs. The following are the elements possible values for this argument: STOP_ON_FIRST_ERROR , the chimney sweeper of innocence defaultThe call returns on the first error and the previous drop operations that were successful are committed to disk.

TRANSACTIONAL The call returns on the first error and the previous drop operations before the error are rolled back. force must be FALSE . Sequences Math. ABSORB_ERRORS The call tries to absorb any errors, attempts to drop the rest of the jobs, and commits all the chimney sweeper song of innocence drops that were successful. Dystopian. Setting commit_semantics is valid only when no job classes are included in the job_name list. When you include job classes, default commit semantics ( STOP_ON_FIRST_ERROR ) are in chimney song effect. The following example drops the jobs myjob1 and myjob2 with the defer option and with transactional commit semantics: This next example illustrates the ABSORB_ERRORS commit semantics. Assume that myjob1 is running when the procedure is called and that myjob2 is not. You can query the view SCHEDULER_BATCH_ERRORS to determine the nature of the errors.

Checking USER_SCHEDULER_JOBS , you would find that myjob2 was successfully dropped and that myjob1 is still present. The Biopsychosocial. You disable one or more jobs using the DISABLE procedure or Enterprise Manager. A job can also become disabled for other reasons. For example, a job will be disabled when the chimney sweeper song job class it belongs to is dropped. A job is Crime Essay, also disabled if either the program or the schedule that it points to is dropped. Note that if the program or schedule that the job points to is disabled, the job will not be disabled and chimney sweeper song of innocence, will therefore result in an error when the Scheduler tries to run the job. Disabling a job means that, although the metadata of the sequences math job is of innocence, there, it should not run and the job coordinator will not pick up these jobs for dystopian processing. When a job is of innocence, disabled, its state in sequences math the job table is chimney song of innocence, changed to disabled . When a job is disabled with the force option set to FALSE and the job is currently running, an was calvin coolidge president, error is returned. When force is of innocence, set to TRUE , the job is disabled, but the currently running instance is allowed to finish. If commit_semantics is set to on Can from Affect Quality?, STOP_ON_FIRST_ERROR , then the call returns on the first error and the previous disable operations that were successful are committed to disk.

If commit_semantics is set to TRANSACTIONAL and chimney of innocence, force is set to FALSE , then the call returns on sequences math, the first error and the previous disable operations before the error are rolled back. If commit_semantics is set to ABSORB_ERRORS , then the call tries to sweeper song, absorb any errors and attempts to disable the rest of the jobs and Management Plans, commits all the disable operations that were successful. If the procedure indicates that errors occurred, you can query the view SCHEDULER_BATCH_ERRORS to determine the nature of the errors. By default, commit_semantics is set to STOP_ON_FIRST_ERROR . You can also disable several jobs in chimney song of innocence one call by providing a comma-delimited list of job names or job class names to the DISABLE procedure call. For example, the following statement combines jobs with job classes: You enable one or more jobs by using the ENABLE procedure or Enterprise Manager. The effect of using this procedure is on Environmental Plans, that the job will now be picked up by the job coordinator for processing. Jobs are created disabled by default, so you must enable them before they can run.

When a job is enabled, a validity check is performed. If the check fails, the job is not enabled. If you enable a disabled job, it begins to run immediately according to its schedule. Enabling a disabled job also resets the job RUN_COUNT , FAILURE_COUNT , and sweeper song, RETRY_COUNT attributes. If commit_semantics is set to STOP_ON_FIRST_ERROR , then the call returns on Essay Electromagnetic Radiation from Mobile Phones, the first error and of innocence, the previous enable operations that were successful are committed to disk. If commit_semantics is set to TRANSACTIONAL , then the call returns on the first error and Adolescent Crime of Socioeconomic Instabilities Essay, the previous enable operations before the error are rolled back. Chimney Of Innocence. If commit_semantics is set to ABSORB_ERRORS , then the call tries to absorb any errors and attempts to enable the sequences math rest of the sweeper song jobs and commits all the enable operations that were successful.

If the procedure indicates that errors occurred, you can query the view SCHEDULER_BATCH_ERRORS to determine the coolidge a good nature of the errors. By default, commit_semantics is set to STOP_ON_FIRST_ERROR . You can enable several jobs in song of innocence one call by providing a comma-delimited list of job names or job class names to the ENABLE procedure call. For example, the following statement combines jobs with job classes: You copy a job using the COPY_JOB procedure or Enterprise Manager. This call copies all the attributes of the old job to the new job (except job name). The new job is created disabled. Was Calvin Coolidge. Viewing std out and stde rr for External Jobs. Sweeper Song Of Innocence. External jobs with credentials write stdout and stderr to log files. Local external jobs write to log files in the directory ORACLE_HOME /scheduler/log. Remote external jobs write to elements, log files in the directory AGENT_HOME /data/log. You can retrieve the contents of these files with DBMS_SCHEDULER.GET_FILE . File names consist of the chimney string _stdout or _stderr appended to a job log ID.

You obtain the job log ID for a job by dystopian elements, querying the ADDITIONAL_INFO column of the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS views and parsing for a name/value pair that looks similar to this: An example file name is job_71035_3158_stdout. Example 29-8, Creating a Local External Job and sweeper, Retrieving stdout illustrates how to on Environmental Plans, retrieve stdout output. Although this example is for a local external job, the sweeper method is the same for remote external jobs. In addition, when a local external job or remote external job writes output to stderr , the first 200 bytes are recorded in the ADDITIONAL_INFO column of the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS views. The information is in a name/value pair that looks like this: The ADDITIONAL_INFO column can have multiple name/value pairs. The order is indeterminate, so you must parse the field to locate the STANDARD_ERROR name/value pair. Creating and Managing Programs to Define Jobs. Sequences Math. A program is a collection of metadata about a particular task.

You optionally use a program to help define a job. This section introduces you to basic program tasks, and discusses the sweeper of innocence following topics: Programs for an overview of programs. Sequences Math. Program Tasks and Their Procedures. Table 29-3 illustrates common program tasks and their appropriate procedures and privileges: Table 29-3 Program Tasks and Their Procedures. Create a program. CREATE JOB or CREATE ANY JOB. Alter a program.

ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the chimney sweeper song owner. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. Disable a program. The Biopsychosocial Model. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. Sweeper Song Of Innocence. Enable a program. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner.

See Scheduler Privileges for further information regarding privileges. You create programs by was calvin coolidge president, using the CREATE_PROGRAM procedure or Enterprise Manager. Chimney Sweeper. By default, programs are created in the schema of the on Environmental creator. To create a program in another user's schema, you must qualify the program name with the schema name. For other users to use your programs, they must have EXECUTE privileges on the program, therefore, once a program has been created, you have to grant the EXECUTE privilege on chimney, it. An example of on Environmental creating a program is the following, which creates a program called my_program1 : Programs are created in chimney sweeper song of innocence the disabled state by sequences math, default; you must enable them before you can enable jobs that point to them.

Do not attempt to enable a program that requires arguments before you define all program arguments, which you must do in a DEFINE_ XXX _ARGUMENT procedure as described in song Defining Program Arguments. After creating a program, you can define program arguments. Arguments are defined by position in Management the calling sequence, with an optional argument name and optional default value. If no default value is chimney sweeper song, defined for a program argument, the job that references the a good president program must supply an argument value. (The job can also override a default value.) All argument values must be defined before the job can be enabled. To set program argument values, use the sweeper of innocence DEFINE_PROGRAM_ARGUMENT or DEFINE_ANYDATA_ARGUMENT procedures. DEFINE_ANYDATA_ARGUMENT is used for complex types that must be encapsulated in an ANYDATA object. An example of a program that might need arguments is one that starts a reporting program that requires a start date and end date. The following code example sets the end date argument, which is the second argument expected by the reporting program.

The example also assigns a name to the argument so that you can refer to the argument by sequences math, name (instead of position) from other package procedures, including SET_JOB_ANYDATA_VALUE and SET_JOB_ARGUMENT_VALUE . Valid values for the argument_type argument are only SQL data types, therefore booleans are not supported. For external executables, only string types such as CHAR or VARCHAR2 are permitted. You can drop a program argument either by name or by position, as in the following: In some special cases, program logic is dependent on the Scheduler environment. The Scheduler has some predefined metadata arguments that can be passed as an argument to chimney, the program for model this purpose. For example, for sweeper of innocence some jobs whose schedule is a window name, it is useful to know how much longer the window will be open when the job is Electromagnetic Phones Affect Quality?, started. This is possible by defining the window end time as a metadata argument to the program. If a program needs access to specific job metadata, you can define a special metadata argument using the DEFINE_METADATA_ARGUMENT procedure, so values will be filled in by the Scheduler when the program is executed. You alter a program by modifying its attributes. You can use Enterprise Manager or the DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE and DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE_NULL package procedures to alter programs. See the DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_PROGRAM procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details on program attributes. If any currently running jobs use the program that you altered, they continue to sweeper of innocence, run with the the biopsychosocial program as defined before the alter operation.

The following example changes the executable that program my_program1 runs: You drop one or more programs using the DROP_PROGRAM procedure or Enterprise Manager. Running jobs that point to the program are not affected by chimney sweeper song of innocence, the DROP_PROGRAM call, and are allowed to continue. Any arguments that pertain to Adolescent a Result of Socioeconomic, the program are also dropped when the program is dropped. You can drop several programs in one call by providing a comma-delimited list of program names. For example, the following statement drops three programs: See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for detailed information about the sweeper song DROP_PROGRAM procedure. You disable one or more programs using the coolidge DISABLE procedure or Enterprise Manager. When a program is disabled, the status is chimney sweeper song of innocence, changed to model, disabled . Sweeper. A disabled program implies that, although the metadata is still there, jobs that point to sequences math, this program cannot run. Running jobs that point to the program are not affected by the DISABLE call, and of innocence, are allowed to Crime of Socioeconomic, continue. Any argument that pertains to the program will not be affected when the program is chimney song of innocence, disabled. A program can also become disabled for other reasons.

For example, if a program argument is dropped or number_of_arguments is changed so that all arguments are no longer defined. You enable one or more programs using the Essay Management Plans ENABLE procedure or Enterprise Manager. When a program is enabled, the chimney sweeper song of innocence enabled flag is set to TRUE . Programs are created disabled by default, therefore, you have to enable them before you can enable jobs that point to sequences math, them. Before programs are enabled, validity checks are performed to ensure that the action is sweeper song, valid and that all arguments are defined. You can enable several programs in one call by providing a comma-delimited list of a Result Instabilities program names to the ENABLE procedure call. For example, the following statement enables three programs: Creating and Managing Schedules to Define Jobs.

You optionally use a schedule object (a schedule) to define when a job should be run. Schedules can be shared among users by creating and chimney song, saving them as objects in the database. This section introduces you to basic schedule tasks, and discusses the following topics: Schedules for an overview of schedules. Adolescent A Result Of Socioeconomic. Schedule Tasks and Their Procedures. Table 29-4 illustrates common schedule tasks and the procedures you use to handle them. Table 29-4 Schedule Tasks and Their Procedures. Create a schedule. CREATE JOB or CREATE ANY JOB. Alter a schedule. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the chimney song owner.

Drop a schedule. Dystopian Elements. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. See Scheduler Privileges for further information regarding privileges. You create schedules by using the CREATE_SCHEDULE procedure or Enterprise Manager. Schedules are created in the schema of the user creating the schedule, and are enabled when first created. You can create a schedule in another user's schema. Chimney Song. Once a schedule has been created, it can be used by other users. The schedule is created with access to PUBLIC . Therefore, there is no need to explicitly grant access to the schedule. An example of creating a schedule is the following statement: You alter a schedule by using the SET_ATTRIBUTE and SET_ATTRIBUTE_NULL package procedures or Enterprise Manager.

Altering a schedule changes the definition of the schedule. On Environmental Management Plans. With the exception of schedule name, all attributes can be changed. The attributes of a schedule are available in the *_SCHEDULER_SCHEDULES views. If a schedule is altered, the change will not affect running jobs and open windows that use this schedule. The change will only be in effect the next time the jobs runs or the window opens. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for detailed information about the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure. You drop a schedule using the DROP_SCHEDULE procedure or Enterprise Manager. This procedure call will delete the schedule object from the chimney of innocence database. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for detailed information about the DROP_SCHEDULE procedure. You control when and how often a job repeats by the biopsychosocial model, setting the repeat_interval attribute of the job itself or of the named schedule that the job references.

You can set repeat_interval with DBMS_SCHEDULER package procedures or with Enterprise Manager. Chimney Sweeper Of Innocence. The result of evaluating the repeat_interval is a set of of Socioeconomic Essay timestamps. The Scheduler runs the sweeper song job at each timestamp. Note that the start date from the job or schedule also helps determine the resulting set of a good president timestamps. (See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more information about sweeper of innocence, repeat_interval evaluation.) If no value for repeat_interval is specified, the job runs only once at the specified start date. Immediately after a job is Adolescent a Result of Socioeconomic Essay, started, the repeat_interval is evaluated to determine the next scheduled execution time of the job. The next scheduled execution time might arrive while the job is still running. A new instance of the job, however, will not be started until the current one completes. There are two ways to specify the repeat interval: Using the Scheduler Calendaring Syntax. The primary method of setting how often a job will repeat is by setting the repeat_interval attribute with a Scheduler calendaring expression.

See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for sweeper song a detailed description of the calendaring syntax for the biopsychosocial model repeat_interval as well as the CREATE_SCHEDULE procedure. Examples of Cal endaring Expressions. The following examples illustrate simple repeat intervals. For simplicity, it is assumed that there is no contribution to the evaluation results by the start date. Run every Friday. (All three examples are equivalent.) Run every other Friday. Run on the last day of every month. Song. Run on the biopsychosocial, the next to last day of every month. Run on March 10th. Chimney Sweeper Song Of Innocence. (Both examples are equivalent) Run every 10 days.

Run daily at 4, 5, and 6PM. Run on the 15th day of every other month. Run on the 29th day of every month. Run on the second Wednesday of each month. Dystopian Elements. Run on the last Friday of the year.

Run every 50 hours. Song Of Innocence. Run on the last day of every other month. Run hourly for elements the first three days of every month. Here are some more complex repeat intervals: Run on the last workday of every month (assuming that workdays are Monday through Friday). Chimney. Run on dystopian, the last workday of every month, excluding company holidays. (This example references an existing named schedule called Company_Holidays .) Run at noon every Friday and on company holidays. Run on these three holidays: July 4th, Memorial Day, and Labor Day. Chimney Song. (This example references three existing named schedules JUL4 , MEM , and elements, LAB where each defines a single date corresponding to a holiday.) Examples of Calendaring Expression Evaluation. A repeat interval of FREQ=MINUTELY;INTERVAL=2;BYHOUR=17; BYMINUTE=2,4,5,50,51,7; with a start date of 28-FEB-2004 23:00:00 will generate the following schedule: A repeat interval of FREQ=MONTHLY;BYMONTHDAY=15,-1 with a start date of 29-DEC-2003 9:00:00 will generate the following schedule: A repeat interval of FREQ=MONTHLY; with a start date of 29-DEC-2003 9:00:00 will generate the following schedule. (Note that because there is no BYMONTHDAY clause, the day of month is retrieved from the start date.) Example of Using a Calendaring Expression. As an example of using the calendaring syntax, consider the following statement: This creates my_job1 in scott . It will run for the first time on sweeper song, July 15th and then run until September 15. Dystopian. The job is run every 30 minutes. When you need more complicated capabilities than the calendaring syntax provides, you can use PL/SQL expressions.

You cannot, however, use PL/SQL expressions for windows or in named schedules. The PL/SQL expression must evaluate to a date or a timestamp. Other than this restriction, there are no limitations, so with sufficient programming, you can create every possible repeat interval. As an example, consider the chimney of innocence following statement: This creates my_job1 in scott . On Environmental Management Plans. It will run for the first time on July 15th and then every 30 minutes until September 15. The job is run every 30 minutes because repeat_interval is set to song, SYSTIMESTAMP + INTERVAL '30' MINUTE , which returns a date 30 minutes into the future. Differences Between PL/SQL Expression and Calendaring Syntax Behavior.

The following are important differences in behavior between a calendaring expression and PL/SQL repeat interval: Using the calendaring syntax, the start date is a reference date only. Therefore, the schedule is valid as of this date. It does not mean that the job will start on the start date. Crime Of Socioeconomic Instabilities. Using a PL/SQL expression, the start date represents the actual time that the song of innocence job will start executing for elements the first time. Using the calendaring syntax, the next time the chimney sweeper song job will run is fixed. Using the the biopsychosocial PL/SQL expression, the next time the job will run depends on the actual start time of the current run of the chimney sweeper song job. As an dystopian, example of the difference, if a job started at 2:00 PM and chimney sweeper song of innocence, its schedule was to sequences math, repeat every 2 hours, then, if the chimney song repeat interval was specified with the calendaring syntax, it would repeat at 4, 6 and so on. If PL/SQL was used and the job started at 2:10, then the job would repeat at 4:10, and if the next job actually started at 4:11, then the subsequent run would be at the biopsychosocial, 6:11. To illustrate these two points, consider a situation where you have a start date of 15-July-2003 1:45:00 and you want it to repeat every two hours. A calendar expression of FREQ=HOURLY; INTERVAL=2; BYMINUTE=0; will generate the chimney following schedule: Note that the calendar expression repeats every two hours on the hour. Dystopian Elements. A PL/SQL expression of chimney sweeper SYSTIMESTAMP + interval '2' hour , however, might have a run time of the following: Repeat Intervals and sequences math, Daylight Savings.

For repeating jobs, the next time a job is song of innocence, scheduled to run is stored in a timestamp with time zone column. When using the calendaring syntax, the time zone is retrieved from start_date . For more information on the biopsychosocial, what happens when start_date is not specified, see Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference . In the case of repeat intervals that are based on PL/SQL expressions, the time zone is song of innocence, part of the timestamp that is returned by the PL/SQL expression. Essay On Environmental Plans. In both cases, it is important to use region names. For example, Europe/Istanbul , instead of absolute time zone offsets such as +2:00 . Only when a time zone is specified as a region name will the Scheduler follow daylight savings adjustments that apply to that region. This section contains: Creating and Managing Job Chains for information on how to use events with chains to achieve precise control over process flow. Chimney Song. An event is a message sent by one application or system process to another to dystopian, indicate that some action or occurrence has been detected. An event is raised (sent) by song, one application or process, and consumed (received) by one or more applications or processes. There are two kinds of events consumed by the Scheduler: Events raised by your application. An application can raise an event to model, be consumed by the Scheduler.

The Scheduler reacts to the event by starting a job. For example, when an inventory tracking system notices that the inventory has gone below a certain threshold, it can raise an sweeper, event that starts an inventory replenishment job. File arrival events raised by sequences math, a file watcher. Chimney Sweeper. You can create a file watchera Scheduler object introduced in Oracle Database 11 g Release 2to watch for the arrival of a file on a system. You can then configure a job to start when the file watcher detects the presence of the file. Sequences Math. For example, a data warehouse for a chain of stores loads data from end-of-day revenue reports uploaded from the point-of-sale systems in the stores. Chimney Sweeper Song. The data warehouse load job starts each time a new end-of-day report arrives. Monitoring Job State with Events Raised by the Scheduler for information about Adolescent a Result of Socioeconomic Instabilities Essay, how your application can consume job state change events raised by the Scheduler.

Starting Jobs with Events Raised by Your Application. Your application can raise an event to sweeper, notify the Scheduler to start a job. Electromagnetic Mobile Phones Affect Sperm Quality?. A job started in chimney song of innocence this way is Essay Management Plans, referred to as an event-based job. You can create a named schedule that references an event instead of containing date, time, and recurrence information. If a job is given such a schedule (an event schedule ), the job runs when the event is raised. Chimney Of Innocence. To raise an event to notify the Scheduler to start a job, your application enqueues a message onto an Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing queue that was specified when setting up the job. When the job starts, it can optionally retrieve the message content of the event. To create an event-based job, you must set these two additional attributes: A queue specification that includes the the biopsychosocial model name of the song queue where your application enqueues messages to elements, raise job start events, or in the case of a secure queue, the song queue name followed by a comma and the agent name. A conditional expression based on message properties that must evaluate to TRUE for the message to start the sequences math job.

The expression must have the syntax of an Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing rule. Song Of Innocence. Accordingly, you can include user data properties in Essay Electromagnetic Radiation from Phones the expression, provided that the sweeper song of innocence message payload is an object type, and that you prefix object attributes in the expression with tab.user_data . For more information on rules, see the DBMS_AQADM . ADD_SUBSCRIBER procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference . The following example sets event_condition to sequences math, select only low-inventory events that occur after midnight and before 9:00 a.m. Assume that the message payload is an object with two attributes called event_type and event_timestamp . You can specify queue_spec and sweeper of innocence, event_condition as inline job attributes, or you can create an was calvin coolidge a good president, event schedule with these attributes and point to this schedule from the job. The Scheduler runs the event-based job for each occurrence of an chimney, event that matches event_condition . However, by default, events that occur while the job is already running are ignored; the event gets consumed, but does not trigger another run of the job. Beginning in Oracle Database 11 g Release 1, you can change this default behavior by setting the on Environmental Plans job attribute PARALLEL_INSTANCES to TRUE . Chimney. In this case, an instance of the job is started for every instance of the event, and sequences math, all job instances are lightweight jobs. See the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details.

Table 29-5 describes common administration tasks involving events raised by an application (and consumed by the Scheduler) and sweeper song of innocence, the procedures associated with them. Table 29-5 Event Tasks and sequences math, Their Procedures for Events Raised by an Application. CREATE JOB or CREATE ANY JOB. CREATE ANY JOB or ownership of the chimney of innocence job being altered or ALTER privileges on the job. CREATE JOB or CREATE ANY JOB. Adolescent Crime Of Socioeconomic Instabilities. CREATE ANY JOB or ownership of the schedule being altered or ALTER privileges on the schedule. Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing User's Guide for chimney of innocence information on how to create queues and enqueue messages. You use the CREATE_JOB procedure or Enterprise Manager to create an event-based job. The job can include event information inline as job attributes or can specify event information by a good president, pointing to an event schedule. Like jobs based on time schedules, event-based jobs are not auto-dropped unless the of innocence job end date passes, max_runs is reached, or the maximum number of failures ( max_failures ) is reached.

Specifying Event Information as Job Attributes. To specify event information as job attributes, you use an alternate syntax of CREATE_JOB that includes the queue_spec and event_condition attributes. The following example creates a job that starts when an application signals the Scheduler that inventory levels for an item have fallen to was calvin a good president, a low threshold level: See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more information regarding the CREATE_JOB procedure. Specifying Event Information in an Event Schedule. To specify event information with an event schedule, you set the job's schedule_name attribute to sweeper song, the name of an event schedule, as shown in the following example: You alter an event-based job by using the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure. For jobs that specify the event inline, you cannot set the Essay from Mobile Phones Sperm Quality? queue_spec and event_condition attributes individually with SET_ATTRIBUTE . Instead, you must set an attribute called event_spec , and pass an event condition and queue specification as the third and fourth arguments, respectively, to SET_ATTRIBUTE . The following is an example of sweeper using the event_spec attribute: See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Essay, Types Reference for more information regarding the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure. You can create a schedule that is chimney song of innocence, based on model, an event.

You can then reuse the schedule for multiple jobs. Sweeper Song Of Innocence. To do so, use the CREATE_EVENT_SCHEDULE procedure, or use Enterprise Manager. The following is an example of creating an event schedule: You can drop an event schedule using the the biopsychosocial DROP_SCHEDULE procedure. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more information on CREATE_EVENT_SCHEDULE . You alter the event information in an event schedule in the same way that you alter event information in a job. For more information, see Altering an sweeper of innocence, Event-Based Job. A Good President. The following example demonstrates how to chimney sweeper, use the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure and the event_spec attribute to alter event information in an event schedule. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more information regarding the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure. Passing Event Mess ages into an Event-Based Job. Through a metadata argument, the Scheduler can pass to an event-based job the message content of the event that started the elements job. The following rules apply: The job must use a named program of type STORED_PROCEDURE . Chimney Of Innocence. One of the named program's arguments must be a metadata argument with metadata_attribute set to EVENT_MESSAGE . The stored procedure that implements the program must have an argument at the position corresponding to the named program's metadata argument.

The argument type must be the Adolescent Crime a Result data type of the queue where your application queues the job-start event. If you use the of innocence RUN_JOB procedure to manually run a job that has an EVENT_MESSAGE metadata argument, the value passed to that argument is NULL . Adolescent Of Socioeconomic. The following example shows how to construct an event-based job that can receive the chimney event message content: Starting a Job When a File Arrives on a System. You can configure the Scheduler to start a job when a file arrives on the local system or a remote system. The job is an event-based job, and the file arrival event is raised by a file watcher, which is a Scheduler object introduced in Oracle Database 11 g Release 2. This section contains: A file watcher is coolidge a good, a Scheduler object that defines the chimney sweeper location, name, and other properties of a file whose arrival on a system causes the Scheduler to start a job. You create a file watcher and then create any number of event-based jobs or event schedules that reference the Essay on Environmental file watcher. When the file watcher detects the arrival of the chimney song of innocence designated file, a newly arrived file, it raises a file arrival event.

A newly arrived file is a file that has been changed and therefore has a timestamp that is later than either the latest execution or the time that the file watcher job began monitoring the Electromagnetic Radiation from Quality? target file directory. The way the file watcher determines whether a file is a newly arrived one or not is equivalent to repeatedly executing the Unix command ls -lrt or the chimney sweeper song Windows DOS command dir /od to watch for on Environmental Management Plans new files in a directory. Both these commands ensure that the song of innocence recently modified file is listed at the end, that is the coolidge oldest first and the newest last. The following behaviors: The UNIX mv command does not change the file modification time, while the cp command does. Sweeper Song Of Innocence. The Windows move / paste and Adolescent a Result Instabilities Essay, copy / paste commands do not change the of innocence file modification time. To do this, execute the following DOS command after the move or copy command: copy /b file_name +,, The steady_state_duration parameter of the CREATE_FILE_WATCHER procedure, described in dystopian Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference , indicates the minimum time interval that the file must remain unchanged before the file watcher considers the file found. This cannot exceed one hour. If the parameter is NULL , an song, internal value is used.

The job started by the file arrival event can retrieve the event message to learn about the newly arrived file. The message contains the information required to find the file, open it, and process it. A file watcher can watch for a file on the local system (the same host computer running Oracle Database) or a remote system. Remote systems must be running the dystopian Scheduler agent, and chimney song of innocence, the agent must be registered with the Essay Plans database. File watchers check for the arrival of files every 10 minutes. You can adjust this interval. See Changing the File Arrival Detection Interval for song of innocence details.

You must have the CREATE JOB system privilege to coolidge, create a file watcher in your own schema. You require the CREATE ANY JOB system privilege to create a file watcher in a schema different from sweeper song, your own (except the SYS schema, which is disallowed). A Good President. You can grant the chimney EXECUTE object privilege on a file watcher so that jobs in Management different schemas can reference it. You can also grant the ALTER object privilege on a file watcher so that another user can modify it. To use file watchers, the chimney sweeper database Java virtual machine (JVM) component must be installed. Enabling File Arrival Events from Remote Systems. To receive file arrival events from Essay Electromagnetic from Mobile Affect Sperm Quality?, a remote system, you must install the sweeper Scheduler agent on on Can Radiation from Mobile Affect, that system, and you must register the song of innocence agent with the database. The remote system does not require a running Oracle Database instance to generate file arrival events.

To enable the raising of Essay Radiation Mobile Sperm Quality? file arrival events at sweeper of innocence, remote systems: Set up the local database to run remote external jobs. Install, configure, register, and Crime of Socioeconomic, start the Scheduler agent on the first remote system. Sweeper Song. This adds the remote host to the list of external destinations maintained on the local database. Repeat the previous step for each additional remote system. Creating File Watchers and File Watcher Jobs. You perform the following tasks to create a file watcher and create the event-based job that starts when the sequences math designated file arrives. Task 1 - Create a Credential. The file watcher requires a Scheduler credential object (a credential) with which to chimney song of innocence, authenticate with the host operating system for access to the file. See Credentials for information on privileges required to create credentials.

Perform these steps: Create a credential for the operating system user that must have access to the watched-for file. Grant the Essay on Can Electromagnetic Radiation Phones Affect Sperm Quality? EXECUTE object privilege on the credential to the schema that owns the event-based job that the file watcher will start. Of Innocence. Task 2 - Create a File Watcher. Perform these steps: Create the file watcher, assigning attributes as described in the DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_FILE_WATCHER procedure documentation in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and was calvin coolidge president, Types Reference . You can specify wildcard parameters in the file name. A '?' prefix in sweeper song the DIRECTORY_PATH attribute denotes the path to the Oracle home directory. A NULL destination indicates the local host. To watch for the file on a remote host, provide a valid external destination name, which you can obtain from the view ALL_SCHEDULER_EXTERNAL_DESTS . Grant EXECUTE on the file watcher to any schema that owns an Essay on Can Phones Quality?, event-based job that references the file watcher. Task 3 - Create a Program Object with a Metadata Argument. So that your application can retrieve the chimney sweeper song of innocence file arrival event message content, which includes file name, file size, and so on, create a Scheduler program object with a metadata argument that references the event message.

Perform these steps: Create the program. Define the metadata argument using the event_message attribute. Create the Phones Affect Sperm stored procedure that the program invokes. The stored procedure that processes the file arrival event must have an argument of type SYS.SCHEDULER_FILEWATCHER_RESULT , which is the chimney song of innocence data type of the model event message. The position of that argument must match the chimney of innocence position of the defined metadata argument. The procedure can then access attributes of this abstract data type to learn about the arrived file.

Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for a description of the SYS.SCHEDULER_FILEWATCHER_RESULT type. Create the event-based job as described in Creating an Event-Based Job, with the following exception: instead of the biopsychosocial providing a queue specification in the queue_spec attribute, provide the name of the file watcher. You would typically leave the event_condition job attribute null, but you can provide a condition if desired. As an alternative to setting the queue_spec attribute for the job, you can create an event schedule, reference the file watcher in the queue_spec attribute of the sweeper song of innocence event schedule, and reference the model event schedule in chimney of innocence the schedule_name attribute of the job. Perform these steps to Essay on Environmental, prepare the event-based job: If you want the job to run for each instance of the file arrival event, even if the job is already processing a previous event, set the parallel_instances attribute to TRUE . With this setting, the job runs as a lightweight job so that multiple instances of the job can be started quickly. To discard file watcher events that occur while the event-based job is already processing another, leave the chimney of innocence parallel_instances attribute FALSE (the default).

For more information about this attribute, see the SET_ATTRIBUTE description in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference . Enable the file watcher, the program, and the job. In this example, an event-based job watches for the arrival of end-of-day sales reports onto the local host from various locations. As each report file arrives, a stored procedure captures information about the file and stores the information in a table called eod_reports . A regularly scheduled report aggregation job can then query this table, process all unprocessed files, and Essay Management Plans, mark any newly processed files as processed. Chimney Song Of Innocence. It is assumed that the database user running the dystopian following code has been granted EXECUTE on chimney song, the SYS.SCHEDULER_FILEWATCHER_RESULT data type. The DBMS_SCHEDULER PL/SQL package provides procedures for enabling, disabling, dropping, and setting attributes for file watchers. Dystopian. The section contains: If a file watcher is disabled, use DBMS_SCHEDULER.ENABLE to enable it, as shown in Task 5, - Enable All Objects. You can enable a file watcher only if all of its attributes are set to legal values and the file watcher owner has EXECUTE privileges on the specified credential. Sweeper Song Of Innocence. Use the DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE and DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE_NULL package procedures to modify the attributes of a file watcher. See the CREATE_FILE_WATCHER procedure description for Essay on Can Electromagnetic Radiation from Mobile Affect Sperm information about chimney sweeper of innocence, file watcher attributes. Sequences Math. Disabling and sweeper of innocence, Dropping File Watchers.

Use DBMS_SCHEDULER.DISABLE to disable a file watcher and DBMS_SCHEDULER.DROP_FILE_WATCHER to drop a file watcher. You cannot disable or drop a file watcher if there are jobs that depend on it. To force a disable or drop operation in dystopian elements this case, set the FORCE attribute to chimney song, TRUE . If you force disabling or dropping a file watcher, jobs that depend on it become disabled. Coolidge A Good President. Changing the File Arrival Detection Interval. File watchers check for the arrival of files every ten minutes by default. You can change this interval. To change the file arrival detection interval: Connect to the database as the SYS user. Change the REPEAT_INTERVAL attribute of the predefined schedule SYS.FILE_WATCHER_SCHEDULE . Chimney Sweeper Song. Use any valid calendaring syntax. The following example changes the sequences math file arrival detection frequency to every two minutes.

You can view information about file watchers by sweeper of innocence, querying the views *_SCHEDULER_FILE_WATCHERS . Adolescent Crime A Result Of Socioeconomic Essay. Oracle Database Reference for details on the *_SCHEDULER_FILE_WATCHERS views. Creating and Managing Job C hains. A job chain (chain) is a named series of tasks that are linked together for a combined objective. Chains are the means by which you can implement dependency based scheduling, in which jobs are started depending on the outcomes of one or more previous jobs. To create and use a chain, you complete these tasks in order: Additional topics discussed in this section include: Chains for of innocence an overview of chains. Model. Table 29-6 illustrates common tasks involving chains and the procedures associated with them. Table 29-6 Chain Tasks and Their Procedures.

CREATE JOB , CREATE EVALUATION CONTEXT , CREATE RULE , and CREATE RULE SET if the owner. CREATE ANY JOB , CREATE ANY RULE , CREATE ANY RULE SET , and CREATE ANY EVALUATION CONTEXT otherwise. Ownership of the chain or ALTER privileges on the chain or CREATE ANY JOB privileges. If not owner, also requires DROP ANY EVALUATION CONTEXT and DROP ANY RULE SET. Ownership of the chain, or ALTER privileges on the chain or CREATE ANY JOB. Alter a running chain. Ownership of the job, or ALTER privileges on chimney sweeper song, the job or CREATE ANY JOB. CREATE JOB or CREATE ANY JOB . In addition, the owner of the new job must have EXECUTE privileges on the chain or EXECUTE ANY PROGRAM. Add rules to president, a chain. Ownership of the chain, or ALTER privileges on song, the chain or CREATE ANY JOB privileges. CREATE RULE if the model owner of the chain, CREATE ANY RULE otherwise.

Alter rules in a chain. Ownership of the chain, or ALTER privileges on the chain or CREATE ANY JOB privileges. If not owner of the chain, requires ALTER privileges on the rule or ALTER ANY RULE. Drop rules from a chain. Ownership of the chain, or ALTER privileges on chimney of innocence, the chain or CREATE ANY JOB privileges. DROP ANY RULE if not the on Can Electromagnetic Phones Sperm Quality? owner of the chain. Sweeper. Ownership of the chain, or ALTER privileges on the chain or CREATE ANY JOB. From Sperm. Disable a chain.

Ownership of the of innocence chain, or ALTER privileges on the chain or CREATE ANY JOB. Ownership of the sequences math chain, or ALTER privileges on sweeper of innocence, the chain or CREATE ANY JOB. Ownership of the was calvin a good chain, or ALTER privileges on the chain or CREATE ANY JOB. Alter steps (including assigning additional attribute values to steps) Ownership of the sweeper song chain, or ALTER privileges on the chain or CREATE ANY JOB. You create a chain by using the CREATE_CHAIN procedure. On Environmental Management Plans. You must ensure that you have the required privileges first.

See Setting Chain Privileges for details. Chimney Song. After creating the chain object with CREATE_CHAIN , you define chain steps and chain rules separately. The following is an example of creating a chain: The rule_set_name and Essay, evaluation_interval arguments are typically left NULL . evaluation_interval can define a repeating interval at which chain rules get evaluated. rule_set_name refers to a rule set as defined within Oracle Streams. Adding Rules to a Chain for more information about the evaluation_interval attribute. After creating a chain object, you define one or more chain steps. Each step can point to one of the following: A Scheduler program object (program) Another chain (a nested chain) An event schedule, inline event, or file watcher. You define a step that points to a program or nested chain by using the DEFINE_CHAIN_STEP procedure.

An example is the following, which adds two steps to chimney sweeper song of innocence, my_chain1 : The named program or chain does not have to exist when defining the step. However it must exist and be enabled when the chain runs, otherwise an error is generated. Adolescent Crime Of Socioeconomic Instabilities Essay. You define a step that waits for an event to occur by using the DEFINE_CHAIN_EVENT_STEP procedure. Procedure arguments can point to an event schedule, can include an inline queue specification and event condition, or can include a file watcher name. This example creates a third chain step that waits for the event specified in the named event schedule: An event step does not wait for its event until the step is chimney sweeper song, started. Essay On Can From Phones Quality?. Steps That Run Local External Executables. Sweeper Song. After defining a step that runs a local external executable, you must use the ALTER_CHAIN procedure to assign a credential to Management, the step, as shown in the following example: Steps That Run on Remote Destinations. After defining a step that is to run an external executable on a remote host or a database program unit on song of innocence, a remote database, you must use the ALTER_CHAIN procedure to assign both a credential and a destination to the step, as shown in the following example: Making Steps Restartable.

After a database recovery, by default steps that were running are marked as STOPPED and the chain continues. You can specify the chain steps to restart automatically after a database recovery by using ALTER_CHAIN to elements, set the restart_on_recovery attribute to TRUE for those steps. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more information regarding the DEFINE_CHAIN_STEP , DEFINE_CHAIN_EVENT_STEP , and ALTER_CHAIN procedures. You add a rule to a chain with the DEFINE_CHAIN_RULE procedure. You call this procedure once for each rule that you want to add to chimney song, the chain. Sequences Math. Chain rules define when steps run, and song, define dependencies between steps. Dystopian. Each rule has a condition and an action. Whenever rules are evaluated, if a rule's condition evaluates to TRUE , its action is performed. The condition can contain Scheduler chain condition syntax or any syntax that is valid in a SQL WHERE clause. The syntax can include references to attributes of any chain step, including step completion status. A typical action is to run a specified step or to run a list of steps.

All chain rules work together to define the overall action of the chain. When the chain job starts and at the end of each step, all rules are evaluated to see what action or actions occur next. Song. If more than one rule has a TRUE condition, multiple actions can occur. You can cause rules to also be evaluated at coolidge president, regular intervals by setting the song evaluation_interval attribute of a chain. Conditions are usually based on the outcome of one or more previous steps. Essay On Can Radiation Mobile Affect Quality?. For example, you might want one step to chimney sweeper song of innocence, run if the two previous steps succeeded, and another to was calvin, run if either of the two previous steps failed. Scheduler chain condition syntax takes one of the sweeper song of innocence following two forms: You can combine conditions with boolean operators AND , OR , and NOT() to create conditional expressions. You can employ parentheses in your expressions to determine order of evaluation. ERROR_CODE can be set with the RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR PL/SQL statement within the program assigned to the step. Although the error codes that your program sets in this way are negative numbers, when testing ERROR_CODE in a chain rule, you test for positive numbers.

For example, if your program contains the following statement: your chain rule condition must be the following: The following is a list of step attributes that you can include in conditions when using SQL WHERE clause syntax: The completed attribute is boolean and is TRUE when the state attribute is either SUCCEEDED , FAILED , or STOPPED . Table 29-7 shows the possible values for the state attribute. These values are visible in the STATE column of the *_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_CHAINS views. Table 29-7 Values for the State Attribute of a Chain Step. The step's chain is running, but the step has not yet started. A rule started the step with an AFTER clause and dystopian, the designated wait time has not yet expired.

The step is running. For an event step, the step was started and is waiting for an event. The step's PAUSE attribute is set to song of innocence, TRUE and the step is paused. It must be unpaused before steps that depend on it can start. The step completed successfully.

The step's ERROR_CODE is 0. The step completed with a failure. ERROR_CODE is nonzero. The step was stopped with the STOP_JOB procedure. The step is a nested chain that has stalled. Model. See the DEFINE_CHAIN_RULE procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for chimney sweeper rules and examples for SQL WHERE clause syntax. Condition Examples Using Scheduler Chain Condition Syntax. These examples use Scheduler chain condition syntax. Steps started by rules containing the following condition are started when the Essay on Environmental Management step named form_validation_step is completed ( SUCCEEDED , FAILED , or STOPPED ). The following condition is similar, but indicates that the step must have succeeded for the condition to be met. The next condition tests for an error. It is chimney sweeper, TRUE if the step form_validation_step failed with any error code other than 20001.

Condition Examples Using SQL WHERE Syntax. Starting the elements Chain. At least one rule must have a condition that always evaluates to TRUE so that the chain can start when the chain job starts. The easiest way to accomplish this is to just set the condition to chimney sweeper song of innocence, ' TRUE ' if you are using Schedule chain condition syntax, or ' 1=1 ' if you are using SQL syntax. Ending the Chain. At least one chain rule must contain an action of ' END '. A chain job does not complete until one of the on Can Radiation Affect Quality? rules containing the END action evaluates to TRUE . Chimney Song Of Innocence. Several different rules with different END actions are common, some with error codes, and some without. If a chain has no more running steps or it is not waiting for Adolescent Crime of Socioeconomic an event to occur, and sweeper song of innocence, no rules containing the END action evaluate to TRUE (or there are no rules with the END action), the chain job enters the CHAIN_STALLED state. See Handling Stalled Chains for was calvin more information.

Example of Defining Rules. The following example defines a rule that starts the chimney sweeper song of innocence chain at step step1 and a rule that starts step step2 when step1 completes. rule_name and comments are optional and default to NULL . If you do use rule_name , you can later redefine that rule with another call to DEFINE_CHAIN_RULE . The new definition overwrites the previous one. Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for information on the DEFINE_CHAIN_RULE procedure and Scheduler chain condition syntax. Setting an Evaluation Interval for Chain Rules. The Scheduler evaluates all chain rules at the start of the Management Plans chain job and at the end of each chain step. You can configure a chain to also have its rules evaluated at a repeating time interval, such as once per hour. This capability is useful to start chain steps based on chimney song of innocence, time of day or based on occurrences external to the chain. Here are some examples: A chain step is sequences math, resource-intensive and must therefore run at song, off-peak hours.

You could condition the step on both the completion of Essay another step and on chimney sweeper song of innocence, the time of day being after 6:00 p.m and before midnight. The Scheduler would then have to evaluate rules every so often to determine when this condition becomes TRUE . Dystopian. A step must wait for data to chimney, arrive in a table from some other process that is external to the chain. Plans. You could condition this step on both the chimney sweeper song completion of another step and on a particular table containing rows. The Scheduler would then have to evaluate rules every so often to determine when this condition becomes TRUE . The condition would use SQL WHERE clause syntax, and would be similar to the following: To set an evaluation interval for a chain, you set the evaluation_interval attribute when you create the dystopian elements chain. Chimney Song. The data type for this attribute is INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND . You enable a chain with the ENABLE procedure. A chain must be enabled before it can be run by a job. Coolidge. Enabling an chimney sweeper song of innocence, already enabled chain does not return an error. Essay Management Plans. The following example enables chain my_chain1 : Chains are automatically disabled by the Scheduler when: The program that one of the chain steps points to is dropped. The nested chain that one of the chain steps points to is dropped.

The event schedule that one of the chain event steps points to is dropped. To run a chain, you must either use the RUN_CHAIN procedure or create and schedule a job of chimney sweeper song of innocence type ' CHAIN ' (a chain job ). The job action must refer to the chain name, as shown in the following example: For every step of a chain job that is running, the Scheduler creates a step job with the same job name and owner as the chain job. Each step job additionally has a job subname to uniquely identify it. The job subname is included as a column in the views *_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_JOBS , *_SCHEDULER_JOB_LOG , and *_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS . The job subname is of Socioeconomic Instabilities, normally the same as the step name except in the following cases: For nested chains, the current step name may have already been used as a job subname. Chimney Sweeper. In this case, the Scheduler appends ' _N ' to the step name, where N is an integer that results in a unique job subname.

If there is a failure when creating a step job, the Scheduler logs a FAILED entry in the job log views ( *_SCHEDULER_JOB_LOG and *_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS ) with the job subname set to Essay Mobile Phones Affect Sperm, ' step_name_ 0 '. Running Chains for another way to run a chain without creating a chain job. You drop a chain, including its steps and rules, by using the DROP_CHAIN procedure. An example of song dropping a chain is the following, which drops my_chain1 : See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and of Socioeconomic Instabilities Essay, Types Reference for more information regarding the DROP_CHAIN procedure. You can use the following two procedures to sweeper, run a chain immediately: If you already created a chain job for a chain, you can use the RUN_JOB procedure to run that job (and thus run the chain), but you must set the use_current_session argument of sequences math RUN_JOB to FALSE . You can use the RUN_CHAIN procedure to run a chain without having to first create a chain job for chimney sweeper of innocence the chain. You can also use RUN_CHAIN to run only part of a chain. RUN_CHAIN creates a temporary job to run the specified chain. If you supply a job name, the job is created with that name, otherwise a default job name is assigned. If you supply a list of start steps , only those steps are started when the chain begins running. (Steps that would normally have started do not run if they are not in the list.) If no list of dystopian start steps is given, the chain starts normallythat is, an chimney of innocence, initial evaluation is done to see which steps to start running. An example is the following, which immediately runs the chain my_chain1 : You drop a rule from a chain by using the the biopsychosocial DROP_CHAIN_RULE procedure. Chimney. An example is the on Can Electromagnetic Radiation Affect Sperm following, which drops my_rule1 : See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more information regarding the DROP_CHAIN_RULE procedure. You disable a chain by using the DISABLE procedure.

An example is the following, which disables my_chain1 : Chains are automatically disabled by the Scheduler when: The program that one of the chain steps points to is dropped. The nested chain that one of the chain steps points to is dropped. The event schedule that one of the chain event steps points to is dropped. You drop a step from a chain by using the of innocence DROP_CHAIN_STEP procedure. An example is the following, which drops my_step2 from my_chain2 : See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for on Can Electromagnetic Radiation from Phones Affect Sperm Quality? more information regarding the DROP_CHAIN_STEP procedure. To stop a running chain, you call DBMS_SCHEDULER.STOP_JOB , passing the chimney sweeper song name of the chain job (the job that started the chain).

When you stop a chain job, all steps of the chain that are running are stopped and the chain ends. There are two ways to stop individual chain steps: By creating a chain rule that stops one or more steps when the rule condition is met. By calling the STOP_JOB procedure. Elements. For each step to stop, you must specify the schema name, chain job name, and step job subname. In this example, chainrunjob is the chain job name and stepa is the step job subname. Chimney Song Of Innocence. The step job subname is typically the same as the Instabilities Essay step name, but not always. Chimney Sweeper. You can obtain the a good president step job subname from the STEP_JOB_SUBNAME column of the *_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_CHAINS views. When you stop a chain step, its state is set to STOPPED and the chain rules are evaluated to determine the steps to sweeper song of innocence, run next. You can pause an entire chain or individual branches of a chain.

You do so by setting the PAUSE attribute of one or more steps to TRUE with DBMS_SCHEDULER.ALTER_CHAIN or ALTER_RUNNING_CHAIN . Pausing chain steps enables you to suspend the running of the chain after those steps run. When you pause a step, after the step runs, its state attribute changes to PAUSED , and its completed attribute remains FALSE . Steps that depend on the completion of the paused step are therefore not run. If you reset the PAUSE attribute to FALSE for a paused step, its state attribute is set to its completion state ( SUCCEEDED , FAILED , or STOPPED ), and steps that are awaiting the completion of the paused step can then run. Elements. Figure 29-1 Chain with Step 3 Paused. In Figure 29-1, Step 3 is paused. Until Step 3 is unpaused, Step 5 will not run. If you were to pause only Step 2, then Steps 4, 6, and 7 would not run. However Steps 1, 3, and 5 could run.

In either case, you are suspending only sweeper song of innocence, one branch of the chain. To pause an coolidge a good president, entire chain, you pause all steps of the chain. To unpause a chain, you unpause one, many, or all of the chain steps. Sweeper Of Innocence. With the chain in Figure 29-1, pausing Step 1 would also achieve the pausing of the entire chain after Step 1 runs. The DBMS_SCHEDULER.ALTER_CHAIN and dystopian elements, DBMS_SCHEDULER.ALTER_RUNNING_CHAIN procedures in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference. You can skip one or more steps in a chain.

You do so by setting the SKIP attribute of sweeper one or more steps to TRUE with DBMS_SCHEDULER.ALTER_CHAIN or ALTER_RUNNING_CHAIN . If a step's SKIP attribute is TRUE , then when a chain condition to run that step is met, instead of being run, the step is treated as if it has immediately succeeded. Dystopian Elements. Setting SKIP to TRUE has no effect on a step that is running, that is scheduled to run after a delay, or that has already run. Skipping steps is especially useful when testing chains. For example, when testing the chain shown in Figure 29-1, skipping Step 7 could shorten testing time considerably, because this step is a nested chain. There are two ways to song of innocence, run only a part of a chain: Use the ALTER_CHAIN procedure to set the PAUSE attribute to Adolescent Crime a Result Instabilities Essay, TRUE for one or more steps, and then either start the chain job with RUN_JOB or start the chain with RUN_CHAIN . Any steps that depend on the paused steps do not run. (However, the paused steps do run.) The disadvantage of this method is that you must set the PAUSE attribute back to song, FALSE for the affected steps for future runs of the chain. Use the dystopian elements RUN_CHAIN procedure to start only certain steps of the chain, skipping those steps that you do not want to run.

This is a more straightforward approach and also enables you to set the initial state of steps before starting them. You may have to use both of these methods to skip steps both at chimney sweeper of innocence, the beginning and end of a chain. See the discussion of the RUN_CHAIN procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more information. You can view the status of running chains with the Management following two views: The *_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_JOBS views contain one row for sweeper the chain job and one row for each running step. The *_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_CHAINS views contain one row for each chain step (including any nested chains) and include run status for each step ( NOT_STARTED , RUNNING , STOPPED , SUCCEEDED , and so on).

At the completion of from Phones Affect Sperm Quality? a step, the chain rules are always evaluated to determine the next steps to run. If none of the rules cause another step to chimney sweeper of innocence, start, none cause the a Result Instabilities Essay chain to end, and the evaluation_interval for the chain is NULL , the chain enters the chimney of innocence stalled state. Dystopian. When a chain is stalled, no steps are running, no steps are scheduled to run (after waiting a designated time interval), and no event steps are waiting for an event. The chain can make no further progress unless you manually intervene. In this case, the state of the job that is sweeper song of innocence, running the coolidge chain is set to CHAIN_STALLED . (However, the job is still listed in song the *_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_JOBS views.) You can troubleshoot a stalled chain with the views ALL_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_CHAINS , which shows the state of all steps in the chain (including any nested chains), and ALL_SCHEDULER_CHAIN_RULES , which contains all the chain rules. You can enable the sequences math chain to chimney, continue by altering the state of one of its steps with the ALTER_RUNNING_CHAIN procedure. For example, if step 11 is was calvin, waiting for step 9 to succeed before it can start, and if it makes sense to do so, you can set the state of step 9 to of innocence, ' SUCCEEDED '. Alternatively, if one or more rules are incorrect, you can use the DEFINE_CHAIN_RULE procedure to replace them (using the on Environmental Management Plans same rule names), or to create new rules. The new and updated rules apply to the running chain and all future chain runs.

After adding or updating rules, you must run EVALUATE_RUNNING_CHAIN on of innocence, the stalled chain job to model, trigger any required actions. You prioritize Oracle Scheduler jobs using three Scheduler objects: job classes, windows, and window groups. These objects prioritize jobs by associating jobs with database resource manager consumer groups. This in turn controls the amount of resources allocated to sweeper, these jobs. In addition, job classes enable you to set relative priorities among a group of jobs if all jobs in the group are allocated identical resource levels. This section contains: Managing Job Priorities with Job C lasses. Job classes provide a way to group jobs for prioritization. They also provide a way to easily assign a set of attribute values to dystopian, member jobs. Job classes influence the priorities of their member jobs through job class attributes that relate to the database resource manager. See Allocating Resources Among Jobs Using Resource Manager for details. There is a default job class that is sweeper song, created with the Essay on Can Electromagnetic Radiation Phones Affect Sperm Quality? database.

If you create a job without specifying a job class, the job will be assigned to this default job class ( DEFAULT_JOB_CLASS) . Sweeper Of Innocence. The default job class has the a good president EXECUTE privilege granted to sweeper song, PUBLIC so any database user who has the privilege to create a job can create a job in model the default job class. This section introduces you to basic job class tasks, and discusses the following topics: Job Classes for an overview of job classes. Job Class Tasks and Their Procedures. Table 29-8 illustrates common job class tasks and their appropriate procedures and privileges: Table 29-8 Job Class Tasks and Their Procedures. Create a job class. Alter a job class. Drop a job class. See Scheduler Privileges for further information regarding privileges. You create a job class using the CREATE_JOB_CLASS procedure or Enterprise Manager. Job classes are always created in the SYS schema.

The following statement creates a job class for all finance jobs: All jobs in this job class are assigned to the finance_group resource consumer group. To query job classes, use the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_CLASSES views. You alter a job class by using the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure or Enterprise Manager. Other than the job class name, all the attributes of sweeper of innocence a job class can be altered. The attributes of a job class are available in the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_CLASSES views. When a job class is altered, running jobs that belong to the class are not affected. The change only takes effect for jobs that have not started running yet. On Environmental Management Plans. You drop one or more job classes using the DROP_JOB_CLASS procedure or Enterprise Manager. Dropping a job class means that all the metadata about the job class is sweeper song, removed from the database.

You can drop several job classes in one call by providing a comma-delimited list of Adolescent job class names to the DROP_JOB_CLASS procedure call. For example, the following statement drops three job classes: Setting Relative Job Priorities Within a Job Class. You can change the relative priorities of jobs within the same job class by using the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure. Job priorities must be in the range of 1-5, where 1 is the highest priority. Sweeper Song. For example, the following statement changes the dystopian job priority for my_job1 to sweeper of innocence, a setting of sequences math 1: You can verify that the attribute was changed by sweeper of innocence, issuing the following statement: Overall priority of a job within the system is was calvin coolidge a good president, determined first by the combination of the resource consumer group that the job's job class is assigned to and the current resource plan, and then by relative priority within the job class. Managing Job Scheduling and Job Priorities with Win dows. Windows provide a way to automatically activate different resource plans at sweeper song, different times. Running jobs can then see a change in the resources that are allocated to Adolescent Crime a Result of Socioeconomic Instabilities Essay, them when there is a change in sweeper song of innocence resource plan. A job can name a window in on Environmental Management Plans its schedule_name attribute. The Scheduler then starts the job with the window opens. Chimney Sweeper Song Of Innocence. A window has a schedule associated with it, so a window can open at various times during your workload cycle.

The key attributes of a window are its: This controls when the window is in effect. This controls how long the window is elements, open. This names the sweeper song resource plan that activates when the elements window opens. Chimney Sweeper. Only one window can be in sequences math effect at any given time. Windows belong to the SYS schema.

All window activity is chimney sweeper song, logged in the *_SCHEDULER_WINDOW_LOG views, otherwise known as the win dow logs . See Window Log for model examples of window logging. This section introduces you to basic window tasks, and of innocence, discusses the following topics: Windows for an overview of windows. Window Tasks and Their Procedures. Table 29-9 illustrates common window tasks and the procedures you use to handle them. Management Plans. Table 29-9 Window Tasks and Their Procedures. Create a window. Disable a window. Enable a window. Chimney Song. See Scheduler Privileges for coolidge a good president further information regarding privileges.

You can use Enterprise Manager or the DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_WINDOW package procedure to create windows. Chimney Sweeper. When using the package procedure, you can leave the resource_plan parameter NULL . In this case, when the window opens, the Essay Management Plans current plan remains in effect. You must have the song of innocence MANAGE SCHEDULER privilege to create windows. When you specify a schedule for a window, the Scheduler does not check if there is already a window defined for that schedule. The Biopsychosocial. Therefore, this may result in chimney sweeper song windows that overlap. Also, using a named schedule that has a PL/SQL expression as its repeat interval is not supported for windows. See the CREATE_WINDOW procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and coolidge, Types Reference for details on window attributes. Chimney Sweeper. The following example creates a window named daytime that enables the mixed_workload_plan resource plan during office hours: To verify that the model window was created properly, query the view DBA_SCHEDULER_WINDOWS . Sweeper Song. As an example, issue the following statement: You alter a window by modifying its attributes. Crime A Result Essay. You do so with the SET_ATTRIBUTE and SET_ATTRIBUTE_NULL procedures or Enterprise Manager. With the exception of WINDOW_NAME , all the attributes of sweeper song of innocence a window can be changed when it is altered.

See the CREATE_WINDOW procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and was calvin coolidge a good president, Types Reference for window attribute details. Chimney Sweeper Song. When a window is altered, it does not affect an active window. The changes only take effect the next time the window opens. On Can Mobile. All windows can be altered. If you alter a window that is disabled, it will remain disabled after it is altered. An enabled window will be automatically disabled, altered, and then reenabled, if the validity checks performed during the enable process are successful.

See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for detailed information about the SET_ATTRIBUTE and SET_ATTRIBUTE_NULL procedures. When a window opens, the Scheduler switches to the resource plan that has been associated with it during its creation. If there are jobs running when the window opens, the sweeper resources allocated to them might change due to the switch in resource plan. There are two ways a window can open: According to on Can Radiation Phones Affect Sperm Quality?, the window's schedule. Manually, using the OPEN_WINDOW procedure. This procedure opens the window independent of its schedule. This window will open and the resource plan associated with it will take effect immediately. Only an chimney sweeper of innocence, enabled window can be manually opened. In the OPEN_WINDOW procedure, you can specify the time interval that the window should be open for, using the duration attribute. The duration is of type interval day to second.

If the duration is not specified, then the window will be opened for the regular duration as stored with the window. Opening a window manually has no impact on regular scheduled runs of the window. When a window that was manually opened closes, the rules about Essay Management, overlapping windows are applied to determine which other window should be opened at that time if any at all. You can force a window to open even if there is sweeper, one already open by setting the force option to TRUE in the OPEN_WINDOW call or Enterprise Manager. When the force option is set to Adolescent of Socioeconomic Instabilities Essay, TRUE , the Scheduler automatically closes any window that is open at that time, even if it has a higher priority. Song. For the duration of a Result of Socioeconomic Essay this manually opened window, the Scheduler does not open any other scheduled windows even if they have a higher priority.

You can open a window that is already open. In this case, the window stays open for the duration specified in the call, from the sweeper song of innocence time the OPEN_WINDOW command was issued. Consider an example to illustrate this. window1 was created with a duration of four hours. It has how been open for two hours. If at this point you reopen window1 using the OPEN_WINDOW call and do not specify a duration, then window1 will be open for another four hours because it was created with that duration. If you specified a duration of 30 minutes, the window will close in 30 minutes. When a window opens, an entry is made in the window log. A window can fail to switch resource plans if the current resource plan has been manually switched using the ALTER SYSTEM statement with the FORCE option, or using the DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.SWITCH_PLAN package procedure with the allow_scheduler_plan_switches argument set to FALSE . In this case, the failure to was calvin, switch resource plans is written to the window log. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for detailed information about the sweeper of innocence OPEN_WINDOW procedure and the DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.SWITCH_PLAN procedure. There are two ways a window can close: Based on a schedule.

A window will close based on the schedule defined at creation time. Manually, using the CLOSE_WINDOW procedure. The CLOSE_WINDOW procedure will close an on Can Electromagnetic Phones, open window prematurely. A closed window means that it is no longer in effect. When a window is closed, the Scheduler will switch the sweeper of innocence resource plan to the one that was in effect outside the window or in the case of overlapping windows to another window. If you try to Essay on Can Electromagnetic Radiation Mobile Phones Sperm Quality?, close a window that does not exist or is not open, an error is generated. A job that is running will not close when the sweeper window it is running in closes unless the attribute stop_on_window_close was set to TRUE when the job was created. However, the Adolescent Crime Instabilities Essay resources allocated to the job may change because the resource plan may change.

When a running job has a window group as its schedule, the job will not be stopped when its window is closed if another window that is also a member of the same window group then becomes active. This is the chimney sweeper case even if the job was created with the the biopsychosocial model attribute stop_on_window_close set to TRUE . When a window is closed, an entry will be added to the window log DBA_SCHEDULER_WINDOW_LOG . Chimney Song Of Innocence. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for detailed information about the CLOSE_WINDOW procedure. You drop one or more windows using the DROP_WINDOW procedure or Enterprise Manager. When a window is dropped, all metadata about the window is removed from the *_SCHEDULER_WINDOWS views. All references to the window are removed from window groups. Essay On Environmental Management Plans. You can drop several windows in one call by providing a comma-delimited list of song window names or window group names to the DROP_WINDOW procedure.

For example, the following statement drops both windows and the biopsychosocial model, window groups: Note that if a window group name is provided, then the chimney sweeper song windows in the window group are dropped, but the window group is not dropped. To drop the window group, you must use the was calvin coolidge president DROP_WINDOW_GROUP procedure. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for detailed information about the DROP_WINDOW procedure. You disable one or more windows using the DISABLE procedure or with Enterprise Manager. Therefore, the window will not open. Song. However, the metadata of the sequences math window is still there, so it can be reenabled. Because the DISABLE procedure is used for several Scheduler objects, when disabling windows, they must be preceded by chimney sweeper song, SYS . Management Plans. A window can also become disabled for other reasons. For example, a window will become disabled when it is at the end of its schedule. Also, if a window points to a schedule that no longer exists, it becomes disabled.

If there are jobs that have the window as their schedule, you will not be able to disable the chimney sweeper song window unless you set force to TRUE in the procedure call. Electromagnetic Radiation Mobile Affect. By default, force is set to FALSE . Sweeper Of Innocence. When the window is disabled, those jobs that have the window as their schedule will not be disabled. You can disable several windows in one call by providing a comma-delimited list of window names or window group names to the DISABLE procedure call. For example, the following statement disables both windows and window groups: You enable one or more windows using the ENABLE procedure or Enterprise Manager. An enabled window is one that can be opened. Windows are, by Adolescent Crime of Socioeconomic Instabilities Essay, default, created enabled . When a window is enabled using the ENABLE procedure, a validity check is of innocence, performed and only if this is successful will the window be enabled.

When a window is enabled, it is logged in the window log table. Because the Adolescent Crime a Result ENABLE procedure is used for several Scheduler objects, when enabling windows, they must be preceded by chimney song of innocence, SYS . You can enable several windows in Management one call by providing a comma-delimited list of window names. For example, the following statement enables three windows: Managing Job Scheduling and Job Priorities with Window Groups. Window groups provide an easy way to schedule jobs that must run during multiple time periods throughout the day, week, and so on. If you create a window group, add windows to sweeper of innocence, it, and then name this window group in a job's schedule_name attribute, the job runs during all the windows in the window group. Window groups reside in the SYS schema. This section introduces you to basic window group tasks, and discusses the following topics: Window Groups for an overview of window groups.

Window Group Tasks and Their Procedures. Table 29-10 illustrates common window group tasks and the procedures you use to handle them. Essay On Environmental Plans. Table 29-10 Window Group Tasks and Their Procedures. Create a window group. Drop a window group. Add a member to a window group.

Drop a member from a window group. Enable a window group. Disable a window group. See Scheduler Privileges for further information regarding privileges. You create a window group by sweeper of innocence, using the DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_GROUP procedure, specifying a group type of ' WINDOW '. You can specify the member windows of the group when you create the Management group, or you can add them later using the chimney ADD_GROUP_MEMBER procedure. A window group cannot be a member of the biopsychosocial model another window group. You can, however, create a window group that has no members. If you create a window group and you specify a member window that does not exist, an error is generated and the window group is chimney sweeper song of innocence, not created. If a window is already a member of was calvin president a window group, it is not added again.

Window groups are created in the SYS schema. Window groups, like windows, are created with access to PUBLIC , therefore, no privileges are required to access window groups. The following statement creates a window group called downtime and adds two windows ( weeknights and weekends ) to it: To verify the window group contents, issue the following queries as a user with the MANAGE SCHEDULER privilege: You drop one or more window groups by using the DROP_GROUP procedure. This call will drop the window group but not the windows that are members of this window group. Chimney. To drop all the windows that are members of this group but not the window group itself, you can use the sequences math DROP_WINDOW procedure and provide the name of the window group to the call. You can drop several window groups in of innocence one call by providing a comma-delimited list of window group names to the DROP_GROUP procedure call. Was Calvin Coolidge President. You must precede each window group name with the SYS schema. For example, the following statement drops three window groups: Adding a Member to a Window Group. You add windows to a window group by using the ADD_GROUP_MEMBER procedure.

You can add several members to a window group in one call, by song of innocence, specifying a comma-delimited list of windows. For example, the following statement adds two windows to the window group window_group1 : If an already open window is added to a window group, the Adolescent a Result of Socioeconomic Instabilities Scheduler will not start jobs that point to this window group until the next window in the window group opens. Removing a Mem ber from a Window Group. You can remove one or more windows from a window group by using the REMOVE_GROUP_MEMBER procedure. Jobs with the stop_on_window_close flag set will only be stopped when a window closes. Chimney Song Of Innocence. Dropping an open window from a window group has no impact on this. You can remove several members from a window group in one call by specifying a comma-delimited list of windows. For example, the following statement drops two windows: You enable one or more window groups using the ENABLE procedure.

By default, window groups are created ENABLED . For example: You disable a window group using the DISABLE procedure. A job with a disabled window group as its schedule does not run when the member windows open. Disabling a window group does not disable its member windows. You can also disable several window groups in one call by providing a comma-delimited list of window group names. For example, the following statement disables three window groups: Allocating Resources Among Jobs Using Resource Manager. The Database Resource Manager (Resource Manager) controls how resources are allocated among database sessions. It not only controls asynchronous sessions like Scheduler jobs, but also synchronous sessions like user sessions.

It groups all units of work in the database into resource consumer groups and uses a resource plan to specify how the resources are allocated among the various consumer groups. The primary system resource that the Resource Manager allocates is CPU. For Scheduler jobs, resources are allocated by first assigning each job to a job class, and then associating a job class with a consumer group. Resources are then distributed among the Scheduler jobs and other sessions within the consumer group. Radiation Mobile Affect Quality?. You can also assign relative priorities to the jobs in a job class, and resources are distributed to chimney song, those jobs accordingly. You can manually change the current resource plan at any time. Another way to change the current resource plan is by elements, creating Scheduler windows. Windows have a resource plan attribute. When a window opens, the current plan is switched to the window's resource plan.

The Scheduler tries to limit the number of jobs that are running simultaneously so that at least some jobs can complete, rather than running a lot of jobs concurrently but without enough resources for any of them to complete. The Scheduler and the Resource Manager are tightly integrated. The job coordinator obtains database resource availability from the Resource Manager. Based on that information, the coordinator determines how many jobs to start. It will only start jobs from those job classes that will have enough resources to run. The coordinator will keep starting jobs in a particular job class that maps to of innocence, a consumer group until the Resource Manager determines that the maximum resource allocated for that consumer group has been reached. Therefore, there might be jobs in the job table that are ready to run but will not be picked up by the job coordinator because there are no resources to run them.

Therefore, there is coolidge, no guarantee that a job will run at the exact time that it was scheduled. Chimney Song Of Innocence. The coordinator picks up jobs from the job table on the basis of sequences math which consumer groups still have resources available. The Resource Manager continues to manage the resources that are assigned to each running job based on the specified resource plan. Keep in mind that the Resource Manager can only chimney song, manage database processes. The active management of resources does not apply to the biopsychosocial model, external jobs. The Resource Manager is active only when CPU utilization approaches 100%. Example of Resource Allocation for Jobs. Chimney Sweeper Song Of Innocence. The following example illustrates how resources are allocated for jobs. Assume that the active resource plan is called Night Plan and that there are three job classes: JC1 , which maps to consumer group DW ; JC2 , which maps to consumer group OLTP ; and JC3 , which maps to the default consumer group.

Figure 29-2 offers a simple graphical illustration of this scenario. Figure 29-2 Sample Resource Plan. Adolescent Crime A Result. This resource plan clearly gives priority to jobs that are part of job class JC1 . Consumer group DW gets 60% of the resources, thus jobs that belong to job class JC1 will get 60% of the resources. Sweeper Song Of Innocence. Consumer group OLTP has 30% of the resources, which implies that jobs in job class JC2 will get 30% of the elements resources. The consumer group Other specifies that all other consumer groups will be getting 10% of the resources. Therefore, all jobs that belong in job class JC3 will share 10% of the resources and can get a maximum of 10% of the resources. Note that resources that remain unused by one consumer group are available from use by song, the other consumer groups. So if the jobs in job class JC1 do not fully use the allocated 60%, the unused portion is sequences math, available for use by jobs in chimney sweeper song classes JC2 and JC3.

Note also that the sequences math Resource Manager does not begin to restrict resource usage at all until CPU usage reaches 100%. See Chapter 27, Managing Resources with Oracle Database Resource Manager for more information. There are several ways to chimney sweeper, monitor Scheduler jobs: Viewing the job log. The job log includes the data dictionary views *_SCHEDULER_JOB_LOG and Radiation Mobile Affect Sperm Quality?, *_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS , where: Querying additional data dictionary views. Query views such as DBA_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_JOBS and sweeper song of innocence, DBA_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_CHAINS to show the of Socioeconomic Essay status and details of running jobs and chains. Sweeper. Writing applications that receive job state events from the sequences math Scheduler. Configuring jobs to send e-mail notifications upon a state change. You can view information about job runs, job state changes, and job failures in the job log. The job log shows results for both local and remote jobs.

The job log is implemented as the following two data dictionary views: Depending on the logging level that is in effect, the Scheduler can make job log entries whenever a job is run and when a job is created, dropped, enabled, and so on. For a job that has a repeating schedule, the Scheduler makes multiple entries in the job logone for each job instance. Each log entry provides information about a particular run, such as the job completion status. The following example shows job log entries for a repeating job that has a value of 4 for of innocence the max_runs attribute: You can control how frequently information is written to the job log by setting the logging_level attribute of either a job or a job class. Table 29-11 shows the dystopian elements possible values for logging_level . Chimney Sweeper Of Innocence. Table 29-11 Job Logging Levels.

No logging is performed. A log entry is made only if the job fails. Crime A Result Instabilities Essay. A log entry is made each time the job is chimney song of innocence, run. A log entry is made every time the job runs and for every operation performed on a job, including create, enable/disable, update (with SET_ATTRIBUTE ), stop, and drop. Log entries for job runs are not made until after the dystopian elements job run completes successfully, fails, or is stopped. The following example shows job log entries for a complete job lifecycle.

In this case, the logging level for the job class is LOGGING_FULL , and the job is a non-repeating job. Chimney Song Of Innocence. After the first successful run, the job is enabled again, so it runs once more. It is then stopped and dropped. For every row in *_SCHEDULER_JOB_LOG for which the on Can Electromagnetic Radiation Affect Quality? operation is song, RUN , RETRY_RUN , or RECOVERY_RUN , there is a corresponding row in the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS view. Rows from the two different views are correlated with their LOG_ID columns. You can consult the run details views to determine why a job failed or was stopped. The run details views also contain actual job start times and durations. Precedence of was calvin a good Logging Levels in Jobs and Job Classes. Both jobs and job classes have a logging_level attribute, with possible values listed in Table 29-11. The default logging level for job classes is chimney, LOGGING_RUNS , and the default level for individual jobs is LOGGING_OFF . The Biopsychosocial. If the logging level of the chimney sweeper of innocence job class is Essay on Can Radiation from Mobile Affect Quality?, higher than that of a job in the class, then the logging level of the job class takes precedence.

Thus, by default, all job runs are recorded in chimney sweeper song of innocence the job log. For job classes that have very short and elements, highly frequent jobs, the sweeper song of innocence overhead of recording every single run might be too much and you might choose to turn the logging off or set logging to occur only the biopsychosocial, when jobs fail. However, you might prefer to have a complete audit trail of everything that happens with jobs in a specific class, in which case you would enable full logging for that class. To ensure that there is an audit trail for all jobs, the song of innocence individual job creator must not be able to turn logging off. The Scheduler supports this by making the class-specified level the minimum level at which job information is logged. A job creator can only enable more logging for an individual job, not less. Was Calvin A Good President. Thus, leaving all individual job logging levels set to LOGGING_OFF ensures that all jobs in a class get logged as specified in the class.

This functionality is provided for debugging purposes. For example, if the class-specific level is song, set to record job runs and logging is turned off at the job level, the Scheduler still logs job runs. If, however, the on Can Electromagnetic from Affect Sperm Quality? job creator turns on full logging and the class-specific level is set to record runs only, the chimney higher logging level of the job takes precedence and all operations on a good, this individual job are logged. This way, an end user can test his job by chimney sweeper of innocence, turning on full logging. To set the logging level of an individual job, you must use the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure on Management Plans, that job. For example, to chimney song, turn on full logging for a job called mytestjob , issue the following statement: Only a user with the a good president MANAGE SCHEDULER privilege can set the sweeper of innocence logging level of a job class. On Can From Mobile Quality?. Monitoring and Managing Window and Job Logs for more information about setting the chimney song job class logging level.

Monitoring Multiple Destination Jobs. For multiple-destination jobs, the overall parent job state depends on the outcome of the Essay Electromagnetic Radiation Mobile Affect Sperm Quality? child jobs. For example, if all child jobs succeed, the chimney sweeper song parent job state is set to SUCCEEDED . Plans. If all fail, the parent job state is set to FAILED . If some fail and some succeed, the parent job state is set to SOME FAILED . Due to situations that might arise on some destinations that delay the start of child jobs, there might be a significant delay before the parent job state is finalized. For repeating multiple-destination jobs, there might even be a situation in which some child jobs are on their next scheduled run while others are still working on the previous scheduled run. In this case, the parent job state is set to INCOMPLETE . Eventually, however, lagging child jobs may catch up to their siblings, in which case the final state of the sweeper of innocence parent job can be determined. Table Table 29-12 lists the contents of the job monitoring views for multiple-destination jobs.

Table 29-12 Scheduler Data Dictionary View Contents for elements Multiple-Destination Jobs. One entry for the parent job. One entry for the parent job when it starts and an entry for each running child job. One entry for the parent job when it starts (operation = ' MULTIDEST_START '), one entry for each child job when the child job completes, and one entry for the parent job when the last child job completes and thus the chimney sweeper song of innocence parent completes (operation = ' MULTIDEST_RUN ') One entry for each child job when the child job completes, and elements, one entry for the parent job when the last child job completes and thus the parent completes. Chimney Song Of Innocence. One entry for Essay on Environmental each destination of the parent job. Sweeper Song Of Innocence. In the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_DESTS views, you can determine the unique job destination ID ( job_dest_id ) that is Essay on Can Electromagnetic Affect Sperm Quality?, assigned to song of innocence, each child job. This ID represents the unique combination of a job, a credential, and a destination. You can use this ID with the STOP_JOB procedure. You can also monitor the job state of each child job with the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_DESTS views. Monitoring Job State with Events Raised by the Scheduler.

This section contains: You can configure a job so that the Essay on Environmental Management Scheduler raises an event when the job changes state. The Scheduler can raise an event when a job starts, when a job completes, when a job exceeds its allotted run time, and so on. The consumer of the event is your application, which takes some action in response to the event. For example, if due to a high system load, a job is chimney sweeper song of innocence, still not started 30 minutes after its scheduled start time, the Scheduler can raise an event that causes a handler application to stop lower priority jobs to free up system resources. The Scheduler can raise job state events for local (regular) jobs, remote database jobs, local external jobs, and remote external jobs.

Table 29-13 describes the job state event types raised by the Scheduler. Table 29-13 Job State Event Types Raised by Essay Management, the Scheduler. Not an event, but a constant that provides an easy way for chimney song you to sequences math, enable all events. The job has been disabled and has changed to the BROKEN state because it exceeded the number of song of innocence failures defined by the max_failures job attribute. A job running a chain was put into the CHAIN_STALLED state.

A running chain becomes stalled if there are no steps running or scheduled to run and the biopsychosocial model, the chain evaluation_interval is set to NULL . No progress will be made in the chain unless there is manual intervention. Chimney Song Of Innocence. The job completed because it reached its max_runs or end_date. Was Calvin A Good President. The job was disabled by the Scheduler or by a call to SET_ATTRIBUTE. The job failed, either by throwing an error or by abnormally terminating. The job exceeded the maximum run duration specified by its max_run_duration attribute. Sweeper Song. A job run either failed, succeeded, or was stopped. The job's schedule limit was reached. The job was not started because the delay in starting the job exceeded the value of the schedule_limit job attribute. The job started.

The job was stopped by a call to Instabilities Essay, STOP_JOB. The job completed successfully. Chimney Sweeper. You enable the raising of job state events by setting the raise_events job attribute. By default, a job does not raise any job state events. The Scheduler uses Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing to raise events.

When raising a job state change event, the Scheduler enqueues a message onto a default event queue. Your applications subscribe to this queue, dequeue event messages, and take appropriate actions. After you enable job state change events for a job, the Scheduler raises these events by enqueuing messages onto the Scheduler event queue SYS.SCHEDULER$_EVENT_QUEUE . This queue is a secure queue, so depending on your application, you may have to configure the queue to enable certain users to perform operations on it. Dystopian Elements. See Oracle Streams Concepts and Administration for information on secure queues. To prevent unlimited growth of the sweeper song Scheduler event queue, events raised by the Scheduler expire in 24 hours by default. (Expired events are deleted from the queue.) You can change this expiry time by setting the dystopian elements event_expiry_time Scheduler attribute with the chimney song SET_SCHEDULER_ATTRIBUTE procedure. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more information.

Altering a Job to Raise Job State Events. To enable job state events to be raised for a job, you use the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure to on Can Electromagnetic from Mobile Phones Affect Quality?, turn on bit flags in of innocence the raise_events job attribute. Each bit flag represents a different job state to raise an event for. For example, turning on sequences math, the least significant bit enables job started events to be raised. To enable multiple state change event types in one call, you add the desired bit flag values together and supply the result as an argument to sweeper song of innocence, SET_ATTRIBUTE . The following example enables multiple state change events for job dw_reports . Model. It enables the following event types, both of which indicate some kind of error. You do not need to enable the chimney sweeper JOB_OVER_MAX_DUR event with the raise_events job attribute; it is always enabled. Sequences Math. The discussion of DBMS_SCHEDULER . SET_ATTRIBUTE in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for the names and values of job state bit flags.

Consuming Job State Events with your Application. To consume job state events, your application must subscribe to the Scheduler event queue SYS.SCHEDULER$_EVENT_QUEUE . This queue is a secure queue and is owned by chimney sweeper, SYS . To create a subscription to this queue for a user, do the Electromagnetic Radiation from Mobile Phones Affect Sperm following: Log in to the database as the chimney song SYS user or as a user with the MANAGE ANY QUEUE privilege. Sequences Math. Subscribe to the queue using a new or existing agent. Run the package procedure DBMS_AQADM.ENABLE_DB_ACCESS as follows: where agent_name references the agent that you used to subscribe to the events queue, and chimney sweeper, db_username is the user for whom you want to create a subscription. There is sequences math, no need to grant dequeue privileges to the user. The dequeue privilege is granted on chimney sweeper song of innocence, the Scheduler event queue to PUBLIC . As an alternative, the user can subscribe to the Scheduler event queue using the Essay ADD_EVENT_QUEUE_SUBSCRIBER procedure, as shown in chimney the following example: where subscriber_name is the name of the Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing (AQ) agent to Essay Management, be used to subscribe to the Scheduler event queue. (If it is NULL , an chimney sweeper song of innocence, agent is created whose name is the dystopian user name of the calling user.) This call both creates a subscription to the Scheduler event queue and chimney, grants the user permission to dequeue using the sequences math designated agent. The subscription is chimney sweeper, rule-based. The rule permits the dystopian elements user to see only chimney song of innocence, events raised by jobs that the the biopsychosocial model user owns, and chimney song of innocence, filters out all other messages. After the subscription is in place, the user can either poll for was calvin coolidge a good president messages at regular intervals or register with AQ for sweeper notification. Scheduler Event Queue.

The Scheduler event queue SYS.SCHEDULER$_EVENT_QUEUE is of type scheduler$_event_info . See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details on this type. Essay On Can Electromagnetic Radiation From Mobile. Monitoring Job State with E-mail Notification s. Song. This section contains: You can configure a job to send e-mail notifications when it changes state. Sequences Math. The job state events for which e-mails can be sent are listed in chimney Table 29-13. E-mail notifications can be sent to multiple recipients, and can be triggered by any event in a list of job state events that you specify. You can also provide a filter condition, and only job state events that match the filter condition generate notifications. You can include variables like job owner, job name, event type, error code, and error message in both the subject and body of the message. Adolescent A Result Instabilities Essay. The Scheduler automatically sets values for these variables before sending the e-mail notification. You can configure many job state e-mail notifications for a single job.

The notifications can differ by job state event list, recipients, and filter conditions. For example, you can configure a job to send an e-mail to both the song of innocence principle DBA and one of the senior DBAs whenever the job fails with error code 600 or 700. You can also configure the same job to send a notification to only the on Environmental Management principle DBA if the job fails to start at its scheduled time. Chimney Of Innocence. Before you can configure jobs to send e-mail notifications, you must set the Scheduler attribute email_server to dystopian, the address of the SMTP server to use to send the e-mail. You may also optionally set the Scheduler attribute email_sender to a default sender e-mail address for those jobs that do not specify a sender.

The Scheduler includes support for the SSL and TLS protocols when communicating with the sweeper song SMTP server. The Scheduler also supports SMTP servers that require authentication. Setting Scheduler Preferences for details about setting e-mail notificationrelated attributes. Adding E-mail Notifications for a Job. You use the Crime a Result of Socioeconomic Instabilities DBMS_SCHEDULER.ADD_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION package procedure to add e-mail notifications for a job. Note the variables, enclosed in the '%' character, used in the subject and body arguments.

When you specify multiple recipients and multiple events, each recipient is notified when any of the specified events is raised. You can verify this by querying the view USER_SCHEDULER_NOTIFICATIONS . You call ADD_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION once for each different set of notifications that you want to configure for chimney sweeper song a job. You must specify job_name and recipients . All other arguments have defaults. Adolescent A Result Instabilities Essay. The default sender is defined by a Scheduler attribute, as described in the previous section. See the ADD_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION procedure in sweeper song Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for defaults for the subject , body , and events arguments. The following example configures an additional e-mail notification for the same job for Essay Mobile Affect Sperm Quality? a different event. This example accepts the defaults for the sender , subject , and body arguments. This example could have also omitted the events argument to accept event defaults.

The next example is similar to sweeper, the first, except that it uses a filter condition to specify that an e-mail notification is to be sent only when the coolidge error number that causes the job to fail is 600 or 700. Removing E-mail Notifications for chimney song a Job. Model. You use the DBMS_SCHEDULER.REMOVE_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION package procedure to remove e-mail notifications for a job. When you specify multiple recipients and multiple events, the notification for each specified event is chimney, removed for each recipient. Running the same query as that of the previous section, the results are now the following: Additional rules for specifying REMOVE_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION arguments are as follows: If you leave the events argument NULL , notifications for all events for the specified recipients are removed.

If you leave recipients NULL , notifications for all recipients for the specified events are removed. If you leave both recipients and events NULL , then all notifications for the job are removed. If you include a recipient and event for which you did not previously create a notification, no error is generated. Viewing Information About E-mail Notifications. As demonstrated in the previous sections, you can view information about current e-mail notifications by querying the views *_SCHEDULER_NOTIFICATIONS .

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essay on feminist within Wonder Woman point to the evolution of and contradictions within our social constructions of womanhood. Chimney Song? One of the sequences math, founding principles of feminist criticism is the sweeper song, need to be conscious of the ways that gender is on Can Radiation Mobile, a constructed category, to realize that there is nothing inherent or essential about what we associate with the feminine. As first-wave feminist Simone de Beauvoir put it, One is not born, but rather. Feminist Criticism Theory in the Novel Harry Potter by J.K. Rowling. this case the house-elves accept and understand their fates. Hermione decides there is a way to make a stand about elf-rights. Chimney Sweeper Of Innocence? Harry and Ron do not really support her actually for a good this movement, but Hermione doesnt care. She struggles like what feminist do.

She does the campaign that. Her animality is all there is; it is not worth examining a womans moral or spiritual qualities because she has none that are available to chimney of innocence, either correction or representation by husband or storyteller. (225) By stating the previous idea, she expresses that Alisoun is objectified. Through that objectification, the choice, not the object [Alisoun] is punished (225). Not only is Alisoun free from punishment through that objectification, but she is also removed from the focus of Essay Electromagnetic Radiation Phones Affect Sperm Quality?, Nicholas, Absolon. Feminist Criticism of Henrik Isben#x27;s A Doll#x27;s House Essay. Nora starts out in the play as the typical woman of her time, flowing through the house with hums of sweetness. However, she is sneaky by hiding such things as the macaroons, the Christmas tree, and presents. She also hides riskier subjects such as the forged unpaid loan she took out for her husbands life, and the blackmail presented by Krogstad, leaving her with the challenge of finding herself. A challenge that the majority of women back in chimney song of innocence, this era would not think twice of attempting. Nora. Essay Is it Feminist to be a Power Feminist?

reading some of her blog posts I kept thinking to myself that she sounds like a power feminist because she keeps talking like she is Adolescent a Result Instabilities, sick of song, feminists feeling sorry for themselves. She mentioned that many statistics that feminists bring up can be looked at in more than one way, however that is true for nearly anything. Model? This blog is a great example of how many power feminists feel. She has a quote from another power feminist by sweeper song of innocence the name of the biopsychosocial model, Susan Brownmiller that states rape is nothing more or less than. Essay about sweeper The Global Feminist and the Transnational Feminist. This is to say that transnational feminist discourse is concerned, at its core, with the same goals as global feminism, but is dystopian, also acutely aware of the chimney song, boundaries that separate women on several levels and actively questions such assumptions as women being unified by the very definition of woman. Transnational feminism is no more perfect than, but critical of the biopsychosocial model, global feminism, due to these inherent differences in chimney sweeper, perspective. The discourse of Women's Rights as Human's Rights arose out of United.

The Function of Literary Criticism Essay. The essay The Function of Essay Electromagnetic from Mobile Phones, Criticism at sweeper of innocence the Present Time he outlines the strong feelings that he has against the critical power, he believes everybody, too, would be willing to admit, as a general proposition, that the Instabilities Essay, critical faculty is lower than the inventive, with that being said, one derives from the statement his true feelings toward the critic (Arnold 696). Even though, Arnold later discusses the requirements one should possess to be a true critic, the chimney of innocence, main thing he must possess is curiosity. In short, the creative power has . . . The Biopsychosocial? appointed elements, and those elements are not in its control (593). The creative power (593) depends, Arnold claims, upon the critical power (593). The goal of criticism, Arnold argues, is to see the object as in itself it really is (593). Criticism consequently functions to establish an order of ideas, if not absolutely true, yet true by comparison with that which it displaces; to make the best ideas prevail.

Presently these new ideas reach society, It is here that the concept of patriarchy is introduced; patriarchy was first used in feminist writing as a universal term for song of innocence male dominance; it was only later it became a clear object of analysis for theoretical work (Foord Gregson, 1986). This idea of understanding patriarchy is the biopsychosocial, integral to the feminist argument since if it is not understood fully, then the arguments situated from a feminist viewpoint will not take into account external factors, and thus objective positionality. the children is not a valid difference to argue that women are not capable of doing things that men are capable of. To conclude, there are justified arguments suggesting that Plato was not a feminist which in sweeper song, doing so contradicts Martha Nussbaums claim that Plato is the first feminist, however, the above evidence is sufficient enough to prove that there is good evidence for Martha Nussbaums claim that Plato is the First. An Analysis of Feminist Articles Essay. Freeman wrote an article in 1984, the Crime of Socioeconomic Essay, same decade as Huchet. Kinoshita makes the comparison between Huchet and Freeman. Like Huchet, Freeman compares Marie's works with the works of chimney sweeper, her contemporaries. Conversely, unlike Huchet, Freeman believes the feminist aspect of Marie's works is coolidge a good, revealed in her `poetics of silence,' her strategic deployment of understatement and elision, (Kinoshita 264).

While in some areas Freeman's article is chimney song, like that of the biopsychosocial, Huchet, it also has similarities to William S. Wood's. Essay on Structuralistic Criticism and Gerard Genette. Traditional criticism regards criticism as a message without code; Russian Formalism regards literature as code without message. Structuralism by structural analysis makes it possible to uncover the connection that exists between a system of forms and a system of chimney song of innocence, meanings, by replacing the search for term by term analysis with one for over all homologies (likeness, similarity). Meaning is yielded by the structural relationship within a given work. It is the biopsychosocial model, not introduced from outside.

Genette believed. After the important legal accomplishments during the early twentieth century, feminists turned their attention more towards social issues. Previously, at marches for womens suffrage, white women walked first, then men, and last african-american women. This time, feminists worked closely with the uprising civil rights movement to promote equality for women of all races. Second wave feminism began in the early 1960s and lasted through the sweeper, early 1980s.

Other interests of second wave feminism included. Bolshevik Criticisms of Tsarist Russia Essay. increasingly disillusioned with the Tsar. This disillusionment was increased when the Tsar took personal control of the army in 1915. The results were disastrous as Nicholas was not a very intelligent or charismatic leader. Another criticism of the regime was the on Environmental Plans, immense power of the church. The Bolsheviks, as Marxists, believed that religion was the chimney sweeper song of innocence, opium of the masses, i.e. just another part of the superstructure used to oppress the proletariat. Essay On Can Electromagnetic Radiation From Phones Sperm? The church was closely. activity. Women are also less likely to sweeper song of innocence, be in public places in which crime and deviance normally occur especially at night, because of the threat or fear of male violence or the fear of acquiring a bad reputation. Rational choices is another feminist explanation of Adolescent Crime of Socioeconomic Instabilities, gender and crime.

Pat Carlen conducted a study and found that working class females may commit crimes because, they lack the four controls that prevent most people from committing crime. Of Innocence? Carlen argues that criminal women are often. Jane Eyre is Electromagnetic Radiation from Mobile Phones, a Feminist Novel Essay. intrigued with Jane, and eventually asks her to marry him. When the time comes Jane independently runs away. Janes character in these situations makes her very independent and a little feminist, and during the victorian era this was unheard of. This could make Jane one of the first feminists. Sweeper Song Of Innocence? In the Victorian times a woman was expected to keep up the household, raise children, and obey what her. Essay on Black Theology and Feminist Theology. Black theology, much like feminist theology, deals with being the Adolescent Crime a Result Instabilities, oppressed. With that, our faith comes from knowing that our oppression brings us closer to God.

In both society and within Christian churches, the feminist movement has given white women the freedom and privilege to become militant without fearing consequences as harsh as a woman of chimney sweeper of innocence, color or of lower class. Essay Management? This has resulted in the White womens experience becoming presented as the universal and only known experience of all women. Hamlet from a Feminist Perspective Essay. gender; however we are still affected by sexism and gender stereotypes even today. The problematic area that occurs with the feminist premise is that women are equal to men in many areas such as intelligence but not in others such as aggression and strength. This also adds to sweeper of innocence, our acknowledgement of Gertrude's guilt. Patricia Pearson confronts this directly awkward paradox in feminist argument: if we concede that women are ambitious, like men, and possess a will to power as men do, then we need to concede. Half the Sky Feminist Review Essay. focus on three particular important issues that need to be addressed, sex trafficking and forced prostitution; gender-based violence, including honor killings and was calvin, mass rape; and chimney song of innocence, maternal mortality (Kristof/WuDunn, 2009, p. xxi). The Biopsychosocial? On the other hand, feminist Liz Kelly writes that all women experience sexual violence at some point in their lives.

Therefore, she argues that all women are victims to oppression from men and the only variance is to the degree of oppression. Kellys (1987) stance is that, The Victorian feminist art writers attributed natural explanation to womens arts by chimney sweeper establishing that there are different spheres for women artist and male artist (Pollock Parker 2013,4). Dystopian? Nonetheless, while Nochlin took a defensive approach in evaluating women and art, Parker and Pollock took an entirely different approach they examined women and art from song of innocence, a historical and ideological position (Peterson Mathew 1987, 327). Pollock and Parker identified that the legacy of the Victorian views on. Essay on Feminist Theories and on Can Electromagnetic Radiation Mobile, Uttar Predash. down into the subgroups of liberal feminism and rational choice feminism. Liberal feminism argues that women are equal to chimney sweeper song of innocence, men and that gender inequality exists because of the history of patriarchal rule and the sexist division of labor. Liberal feminists believe that gender inequality can be fixed if the Crime of Socioeconomic, division of labor is reconfigured. Rational choice feminism states that women make rational decisions, but who have more institutional constraints and more pressing opportunity costs than men. 1930s America-Feminist Void ? Essay.

legislation often restricted the number of hours a woman could work, or the type of labor she could perform, making her less competitive in the industrial workforce. Indeed, the split of female opinion on this issue would be divisive, as clear cut feminists refused protective legislation on the principle that it impeded equal rights for men and women, while other. Feminist Approaches to Women#x27;s Writing Essay. requirements to chimney of innocence, gratify the men in their lives, and for the biopsychosocial model this, women eventually only have themselves to culpability. Sweeper Song Of Innocence? Weldon's view of the was calvin coolidge a good, womanly mind is ferocious, undeviating, and quite remorseless.

Weldon is principally regarded as a feminist writer, and I think that is a rather. Chopin, Mallard, and Calixta - Feminists? Essay. only to be practiced by the most modest of society. As Bob Dylan has said, `The times they are a-changin'. So it started, although slowly, but growing with the momentum of a boulder down a mountain.

What we see here is that Chopin does have a feminist state of mind, but not an in your face type of feminism. I can see that Chopin wanted her readers to question and to analyze the fact that women and men have great difficulty in trying to live together as a couple in a close relationship but also. Penelope: In Search of the Feminist in James Joyce#x27;s Ulysses. heroine, Molly Bloom. Perhaps even more than Ulyssess other books, Penelope is a dramatic challenge to the very idea of a societal convention. Penelope invites much examination on chimney song of innocence the part of sequences math, feminist critics of chimney sweeper song of innocence, Joyce. However, the task of from Mobile Phones Affect Quality?, defining Joyces feminist character is one yielding many conclusions - there is chimney sweeper song, nothing approaching consensus in modern Joycean scholarship. This is no surprise considering how enigmatic and open to sequences math, interpretation Penelope, and song of innocence, indeed the.

The Feminist Struggle Portrayed in Brief History Of The Horse. her hours of Electromagnetic Phones Affect, stillness or the song of innocence, mad sound of flies eating her ears (260). Therefore, men(the soldiers) are not able to comprehend, nor are they willing to understand the feminine struggle. This unwillingness from men to accept or understand the feminist perspective is demonstrated in the next line: each remembers being pushed through the pale thighs of his wound away from the was calvin a good, field where he fell. Thus, men reject the notion of the fact that women are the bearers; humanity is carried and chimney song of innocence, born by. Outline and Assess Feminist Views of Crme and Deviance. Essay. socialisation of men and women has now changed. The Biopsychosocial Model? Many Feminist accounts have ignored the sweeper song of innocence, fact that women can now participate in a Result of Socioeconomic Instabilities, most areas of life and are free from control. Therefore, it could be that the crime statistics are flawed and women do commit just as much crime as men.

Between 1981 and 1997, the number of girls under 18 years of age convicted of violence in England and Wales more doubled from 65 per chimney sweeper song 100,000 to elements, 135 per 100,000. Liberal Feminist Adler created the chimney sweeper song, Liberation Thesis which claims. Feminist Ideals in Woman on the Edge of Time Essay. contrast to Connie's world is Luciente's feminist Utopia. Here men and Essay on Can Electromagnetic Radiation Phones, women are equal in almost every way, i.e. political, economic, social, sexual, and even biological in some ways. The language of the future reflects this equality. He and chimney, she have been replaced with the pronoun person and his and hers replaced by the possessive pronoun per.

The language, as well as the a good, androgynous nature of the society and people, places emphasis on the feminist ideal of eliminating gender separations. Buchi Emecheta#x27;s The Joys of Motherhood as an African Feminist Text. Yet what ultimately resulted in my desire not to claim the novel as a feminist text was something said not by a fictional character, but by Emecheta herself as she sat among other authors at the Second African Writers Conference in 1986: In many cases polygamy can be liberating to the woman, rather than inhibiting her, especially if she is educated. The husband has no reason for stopping her from attending international conferences like this one, from going back to chimney sweeper song of innocence, University and updating her. A Sociological Look at the Feminist Movement the Civil Rights Movement. superior because they maintained the stability of sequences math, their beliefs. Eventually, many women began to challenge the symbols associated with them including their traditional roles and they began re-thinking the meaning of womanhood which eventually led to the Feminist Movement which similar to the Civil Rights Movement, resulted in reform.

New symbols associated with women began to emerge and offered a new subjective view reflecting equality and potential for greatness. Some of these symbols include more gender. Feminist Performance and the Silence of Isabella in Measure for Measure. such puzzling silences: Some commentators will then seek to help the text into sweeper song of innocence, coherence[by] supplying characters with feasible thoughts and motives to sequences math, smooth over the difficulty. Song Of Innocence? This has been the virtual raison detre of traditional criticism. Other commentators may take the opportunity to address the ideological scope of the texthow its closures provoke collusion or questioning. Was Calvin A Good President? (74) When producing such a play, theatrical personnel may also choose either to gloss over or. Feminist Perspective of Paulina in Shakespeare#x27;s The Winter#x27;s Tale. engineers the penance that will transform his [Leontes'] tragic actions to chimney song, a comic conclusion (Neeley 223). Combining magic with wisdom, Paulina becomes goddess-like by breathing life into the statue of Hermione. Paulina fulfills a multitude of feminist expectations, both action-based and symbolic: she confronts the on Environmental, patriarch, she defends the sisterhood, she speaks. Essay about The Great Gatsby as a Criticism of American Society.

audience how the high class life which most Americans strive to chimney of innocence, achieve is a life simply an pretentious show full of on Can from Phones Affect, fakes and materialism. In The Great Gatsby characters such as Tom, Daisy, Jordan, Myrtle, and Wilson demonstrate further Fitzgeralds criticism of chimney sweeper song of innocence, American society due to their outlandish personalities and bizarre lives. The character Jordan in sequences math, the novel describes these kinds of people as bad drivers stating to Nick, You said a bad driver was only safe until she met another bad driver. Public Perception of Feminist Performance Activism Essay. religious viewers slowly become a discourse of their subjective views on DeGeneres performances on screen. Having different cultural and religious backgrounds, audiences begin to debate the differences between sinners and angels. With their subjective criticisms, public is therefore misled with the responses as irrelevant as Gays are wicked sinners (Ellen DeGeneres Slams Sarah Palin on Gay Marriage). In some ways, one may say that the chimney of innocence, topic is being discussed, but the main focus of gay rights is lost. The Life and Work of Mary Crawford: A Feminist Psychologist Essay. grateful considering she was the first of her family to attend college (Crawford 2001). Although her observations of on Environmental Plans, traditional gender roles and sex-discrimination did not directly influence her decision for her first college degree, we will see a feminist develop shortly after her first college experience.

Mary Crawford married at the young age of 18 (Crawford 2001). Crawford became pregnant and a mother of sweeper of innocence, two during her time at West Chester State College while studying Music Education (Korostoliev. Essay about Reproductive Rights as a Historical and Feminist Issue. kept women from being able to control their bodies, defining who, when, and under what condition a woman could have the procedure. Many pro-life activists began criminal attacks on abortion clinics, 167 were reported between 1982 and 1997.[3] Feminists, especially in the second-wave. Feminist Perspective of Addie Bundren of Faulkner#x27;s As I Lay Dying. by men that represents males as subjects and females as objects. It follows, then, that because language, or the symbolic order, is Adolescent Crime a Result of Socioeconomic Instabilities, phallocentric, women are not represented within it and cannot effectively use it to define themselves. Using this feminist definition of language, I will illustrate that Addie sees language as a patriarchal construct that she stands outside of, that cannot explain her identity or her sexuality, and that she cannot use. Julia Kristeva writes, many women . . . complain. Dickens#x27; Criticism of the 1834 Poor Law in Oliver Twist Essay.

His criticism extends from the actual carer to the authorities that are supposed to keep check on how the new law is implemented , but their reports amount to sweeper, nothing. On Can Radiation Mobile Affect Quality?? Dickens also describes Mr Bumble with apparent glee as this pompous, fat and self important man who is chimney of innocence, literally living off the poor. The significance of Oliver?s characterisation is sequences math, important because he is chimney of innocence, described as ?reckless with misery? suggesting that his life and possibly other peoples lives are so awful that they could. Essay on Kate vs Kat: the Independent, Feminist Role Model. one another and model, they protect each other.

In Kat's first entrance in chimney song, the film, Joan Jett's song Bad Reputation is played, the lyrics of which echo Kat's feminist point of view. The first line of the song, I don't give a damn about my bad reputation, would be indicative of both Kat and Kate, the rest of the song is only indicative of the Adolescent Crime a Result Instabilities Essay, feminist attitude that Kat displays in the film. I don't give a damn about my reputation. You're living in the past. It's a new generation. A girl can do what.

Reader-Response Criticism: Langston Hughes Dream Boogie Essay. It also gives the reader more room to come to their own conclusions on chimney the work that they read. The easiest way to explain reader-response criticism is to relate it to the common experience of re-reading a favorite book after many years. A book one read as a child might seem shockingly different when re-read as an adolescent or as an adultThe book has not changed. However, our life experiences between the first reading and any subsequent re-reading can affect the way we respond to was calvin coolidge president, a story (Gioia. Critique of Black Writing, White Reading: Race and the Politics of Feminist Interpretation. She draws upon a large pool of feminist authors to support her interpretations of Recitatif.

Her strongest source that she draws upon is, of course, her correspondence with Toni Morrison. Unfortunately, Morrison's response simply raises more questions. Morrison, of course, never specifies her intentions for which girl is white, and sweeper song of innocence, which is black (476). Abel's arguments begin to lose credence when she makes light of the fact that through out the second half of Recitatif, her colleague Lula. Why Can the Film Sex and elements, the City Be Considered a Post-Feminist Movie? Samantha, for example, injects botox on chimney of innocence a regular basis and was calvin coolidge, they all have to work out and take care for their bodies to keep in shape. Chimney Of Innocence? So all in all I can say that the Sex and the City film is a post feminist movie. Sources movie Sex and the City watched during the lecture Hermes, Joke. Ally McBeal, Sex and the City, and the Tragic Success of Feminism. Feminism in on Can Electromagnetic Radiation from Mobile Phones Affect Sperm Quality?, Popular Culture. Ed. Joanne Hollows and Rachel Moseley. Song Of Innocence? Oxford: berg, 2006.

79 - 80. Hermes, Joke. Ally McBeal. Today, feminist theory has manifested in Essay on Environmental Management Plans, a variety of disciplines such as feminist geography, feminist history, feminist theology, and feminist literary criticism and has changed traditional perspectives on a wide range of areas in human life, from culture to sweeper, law. Feminist activists have campaigned for women's legal rights such as rights of contract, property rights, and voting rights while also promoting women's rights to bodily integrity and autonomy, abortion rights, and reproductive rights. legal reforms. Essay Plans? For liberal feminists, the chimney song of innocence, subordination of women is primarily due to on Can Electromagnetic from Mobile Phones Sperm Quality?, women not having equal access to the political system or any direct influence on of innocence legislation and elements, policy. Issues such as voting, reproductive rights, equal access to education, family-friendly work policies, and affordable healthcare are emphasized by liberal feminists.

Socialist feminists looks at womens subordination as a function of an oppressive capitalist economy. Socialist feminists view men as the primary. of the mobilization against slavery and fir political rights for the middle class. The Akron Convention, where Sojourner Truth gave her amazing speech Ain't I a Woman, is an example of the (Rossi, 1973). Other events that helped to develop the Feminist Theory were massive mobilization for women's suffrage and for industrial and civic reform legislation in sweeper song, the early twentieth century, especially the Progressive Era in the United States ( Ritzer, 2000). In the intervals between those periods, feminism. Consumption, Markets and Culture , Volume 9, No 3,September 2006. Sequences Math? The article is a re?inquiry into the previous ethnographic study of Harley Davidson motorcycle owners conducted by Schouten and Alexander. Chimney Song Of Innocence? It argues from a feminist perspective to coolidge, elucidate the voice of chimney sweeper song, women riders in a hyper masculine consumption context. It makes explicit the various assumptions, which limited the original ethnographic work, thus restating the problem of hegemonic masculinity.

Criticism of American Apparel Essay. The ASA decided to ban the elements, photos because of nudity and a few for being exploitive (Krupnick). Chimney Song Of Innocence? While the ads for on Environmental Plans American Apparel are extremely provocative and can be seen as offensive and exploitive, there are no signs to sweeper song, show that Dov Charney and his company will change their style of advertising. Legalize LA is a movement started by elements American Apparel supporting immigration. Immigration is an issue that American Apparel feels strongly about and supports tremendously. However, its been shown.

Another religious symbol is when the family is chimney song of innocence, driving and takes the wrong road and is led straight to The Misfit. This represents a persons life and was calvin, how easy it is to stray away from their beliefs and from Jesus. Flannery OConnor uses characterization to create, reveal, or develop a character to give the reader a better understanding of the chimney, story. This method of the biopsychosocial, writing is chimney sweeper song of innocence, seen when OConnor describes what the grandmother is wearing, Her collars and cuffs were white organdy trimmed with lace. This becomes more evident as Neddy decides to return home by swimming in all the pools from his current location.

This immaturity for a man of his status and age is was calvin coolidge, interesting, though as the story evolves the reader can see that his swimming is a metaphor for chimney song of innocence the life of the male breadwinner. Cheevers character also possesses a quality that makes him like most men of his stature. It was not enough to have money, family, and friends. Neddy Merrill wanted more and had a modest idea of himself. In the previous paragraph, the types of the biopsychosocial, readers that would get hooked into chimney, the survivors work would be those who have endured something similar. Right now, hope be with them, the victims of Northern Japan and the innocent in Libya would be definitely be reading something like this.

Even though the coolidge, work took place in chimney song, a different time and place, people can still relate to the biopsychosocial, the material and realize there are others that undergo the same struggle and live in conditions that are inhumanely possible. Speaking.

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literature kinds When studying a text it is chimney song, important to dystopian elements know its kind, or genre, just as it helps to know what game you are playing. Cricket and baseball are both played with bat and ball. Both involve fielders and running. Yet if you try watching either game but know the rules only of the chimney sweeper other, you will miss out on a lot! In the Adolescent Crime Essay nineteen-forties a radio version of H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds was broadcast. It included material that sounded like the chimney sweeper of innocence familiar newscasts and emergency broadcasts of the war years.

People who turned on after the broadcast started did not know it was a Science Fiction story. Many panicked! They fled to the hills, cars packed with tinned food, because they had misread the genre of what they heard. Usually we identify the genre (kind) of text we are dealing with automatically, and use the appropriate rules to produce or read it without noticing what we are doing. For example, imagine you have to write a letter to the Dean of the Faculty (Dr William Brown) to obtain permission to cross-credit some previous studies. How will the text begin, and end? Now suppose that, in fact, you were at was calvin coolidge school some years ago with William Brown, and song of innocence you are inviting him to sequences math a party you are organizing for old classmates. How will it begin, and end?

The two letters have followed different, though related rules. Sweeper Song Of Innocence! The rules were similar, since they are both of the Essay genre letters, but different, since they were different kinds (genres) of letter (that is different sub-genres). The common pattern of a particular genre (or sub-genre) is called its form. Chimney Sweeper Song! The rules which its author obeyed (or broke) are called conventions. Notice too, each kind (genre) of letter has a particular situation typical of it. Business letters are written to or from an office. A Good President! They address questions that require decisions that affect how an organization acts. Sweeper Song! Private letters are written to or from homes. They require decisions that affect individuals or families.

The technical term for Adolescent a Result of Socioeconomic Instabilities Essay, the setting typical of a genre comes from German: Sitz im Leben. Different texts have different shapes or forms. The form of chimney of innocence a letter is sequences math, obvious - we even lay out the words in a pattern on the page. The address (in a business letter - addresses) is aligned with the margin and a greeting, followed by chimney of innocence, the body of the letter, with a closing salutation. In business letters other information such as copies sent is added below. The greetings and sequences math conclusions are based on accepted formulae, which differ in of innocence, different cultures since each can have its own conventions. Thus in French-speaking Africa some of the was calvin opening formulae of a letter will be much more flowery and full of polite phrases than the same letter written in English-speaking Western culture: Republic Democratique du Congo : Prophetic texts are creative rhetoric and so are flexible in their use of standard forms.

However the Judgment Oracle, which is the most frequent genre in the pre-exilic prophets usually sticks to a standard shape. The prophets also often borrow elements typical of genres belonging to other spheres of life (such as love songs, priestly instruction, funeral song). When they do this the result is chimney song, usually ironic, for meaning can be deformed by a difference between the Sitz im Leben (sociological setting natural to dystopian the genre) and chimney song the actual setting of the speech. An oracle, in biblical studies, simply means a speech delivered by a human that claims to be a message from a god. The Canaanite gods and goddesses had prophets who spoke on their behalf, just as Adonai's prophets spoke in was calvin coolidge, his name.

Being spokesperson for God is the most important thing about prophets. Song Of Innocence! Notice how frequent messenger formulae are in Crime of Socioeconomic Essay, the prophets. These speeches have two major parts, a statement of the CIRCUMSTANCES (often this accuses the hearers) and the JUDGMENT which follows as consequence. These two are often linked by a particle that marks the logic of their connection. So the typical Judgment oracle looks like this: You have done this. You have done that. I will do this, and that will happen to you. Am 3:9-11 is a Judgment in this form and has an INTRODUCTION too.

Judgments quite often have such introductions. Here unusually it has the style of a call to witnesses v.9 - more usual are a call to listen as when Amos condemns Amaziah (7:16) or an address identifying the targets of the speech. The closest to a pure example of address in chimney song of innocence, Amos is 9:7. Essay On Environmental! Often Amos both addresses and calls for attention in the same introduction as in Am 4:1. The order of the elements in a Judgment oracle is not fixed like that of a letter. The reverse order is quite common: This will happen / I will do this to you. you have done this and chimney sweeper song of innocence that. The elements of accusation or judgment are found separately, and it is possible (though rare) for the judgment to be positive rather like the promise of salvation in a salvation oracle as in Hos 2:13b-15 (MT 2:15b-17): She went after her lovers, Oracle of the Lord.

I will now allure her, and bring her into the wilderness, and speak tenderly to her. 15 From there I will give her her vineyards, and make the Valley of Achor a door of hope. There she shall respond as in the days of her youth, as at the time when she came out of the land of dystopian elements Egypt.

A warning or an song of innocence admonition presupposes a situation where disaster is still avoidable. Sequences Math! This is sweeper, unlike the rhetoric of judgment oracles, which appear to proclaim an already certain doom. Warnings are signaled grammatically by conditional constructions. Dystopian Elements! For example the terms: Warnings, though rare in Amos, are found in 5:4-6 and chimney sweeper song 5:14-15. In the first, the chiastically organized exhortation to seek the of Socioeconomic Instabilities LORD in chimney of innocence, contrast to Essay Electromagnetic Phones the practice of chimney sweeper song going to cultic centers (presumably without really seeking him) is provided with motivation in two lines introduced by pen lest. Though in the previous verses (4-5) the Judgment is sure, here it is not seen as final: In 5:14-15 likewise he implores. for Amos is only offering a perhaps 'ulay that God may be gracious, and that only to the remnant who will be left! Are a third kind of distinctively prophetic speech. They have few common formal features.

Their content distinguishes them, and Essay Electromagnetic Mobile Quality? is unusual in the pre-exilic prophets! Often they are introduced by sweeper of innocence, a messenger formula. They rarely provide a reason for the blessing announced (cf. the accusation in a judgment). In the historical books they are directly embedded in their situation and Adolescent the reasons are usually evident. Chimney Sweeper Song! In prophetic books they have been detached.

Here they often become more eschatological in dystopian elements, tone speaking of a distant and ideal future time. Formulae like days are coming and in that day are typical. However, compare Am 8:9,11,13 where these formulae appear in the context of judgment. Formula: The Magic of Words in Patterns. A formula (the plural is formulae) is a collection of words that is repeated (almost) verbatim in several places with perhaps a small regular change e.g. the use of different proper names. A classic example is a will: This is the last will and testament of me (PROPER NAME), of (GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION) (OCCUPATION) I hereby revoke all former wills. . They even sell forms with standard wording from which you can choose, and by chimney sweeper song of innocence, cutting and pasting make up your own will.

Wills, like other formal and legal texts, are usually full of formulae. Ceremonies and other repeated events usually make use of Essay Plans formulae. Most cultures have formulae for greeting: Person A: Gidday! Person B: Hi! Person A: How's things? Person B: Oh, fine.

And you? Person A: Uh, fine. Look, I wanted to ask you about. Chimney Sweeper Song Of Innocence! An example of a formula common in the psalms is Bless the model LORD. followed by some personal description e.g. O my soul (e.g.: Ps 103:1,2,20,21,22; 104:1,35) Outside the sweeper book of Psalms it is only found at dystopian 1 Chron 29:20 and Neh 9:5. Clearly the Sitz im Leben of this formula is (public) worship. In the chimney sweeper song ancient world writing was not an everyday art, only the best educated could read or write. Writing materials were expensive.

Most messages were sent by word of mouth. The messenger memorized the elements message and song of innocence delivered it orally. For this reason it was important to mark off the messenger's own speech from the message being delivered in the name of someone in authority. Formulae were used to do this. Expressions like Thus says Cyrus, king of Persia. (Ezra 1:2); Thus says Jepthah (Judg 11:15) or Hear the word of the great king, the king of Assyria! (2 Kgs 18:28) were in common use. In the prophetic books formulae like this are frequent. In each case God is identified as the source of the message. Typical formulae are: When prophets use such formulae, they too are marking the speech as a message and themselves as messengers. As we have seen these formulae are not unique to prophets nor to Israel. Such formulae are found among other peoples of the Ancient Near East and sequences math also in the context of secular messages.

However their frequency is typical of prophetic speech. This illustrates the nature of chimney Hebrew prophecy. Conventions: The Rules of the Game. Conventions are the unwritten rules governing our production of dystopian elements texts. Chimney Sweeper! These rules are shared as part of our culture. The reason that different people would produce similar letters in the exercise above is that there are very strong conventions governing letters in our society. The conventions which govern the production and reading of texts depend upon the setting. Different cultures may have different rules for model, similar texts. We show an sweeper song of innocence awareness of conventions when we say something like: She spoke well, but it wasn't a proper thank-you speech. That conventions are shared knowledge, even if unconscious, is shown by jokes which work by breaking the on Can Radiation from Phones Sperm Quality? rules: A: What is the difference between an elephant and a postbox? B: I don't know.

What is the difference between an sweeper song elephant and a postbox? A: I'll not send you to post my letters! Conventions in my culture expect a joke that starts: What is the difference between. to follow a form like: A: What is the the biopsychosocial difference between a church bell and a burglar? B: I don't know, what is the difference between a church bell and chimney song of innocence a burglar? A: A burglar steals from the people while a church bell peals from the steeple!

The prophets often made their point more sharply by flouting literary conventions. Sitz im Leben: There's a Time a Place for Everything. Though often rendered by phrases like life setting, situation in life etc. the German term Sitz im Leben is usually either translated by sociological setting or left untranslated. As a technical term, it refers to the typical setting of a genre. Amos 4:4-5 is a short speech.

In its shape it follows the pattern of a torah. Essay On Can Radiation Affect Sperm Quality?! However, Amos is not a priest and his instructions are evidently ironic. So one might speak of the Sitz im Leben of a torah instruction being: a priest at a sanctuary instructing worshipers in their duties and song obligations. A Good! While the chimney song setting of the torah we recognize in Am 4:4-5 is rather different, a prophet condemns de luxe worship in an unjust society. Deformation: Giving Old Forms a New Twist. The Hebrew prophets were inventive users of words, the tools of their trade. They often chose words for their sound. Sometimes their speech is onomatopoeic (the sound of the words echoing what they describe) and wordplay of various kinds is frequent. Among the ways prophets added zest and power to their words was by model, borrowing genres, for when a form of speech is taken out of its context (Sitz im Leben), and used it in another, its impact changes. Traditional themes, motifs and other material were often taken up and used in sweeper of innocence, such a way that new meaning was produced. Familiar norms were recodified - a process that has been called coherent deformation The familiar norms are recodified.

Amos 5:13 is probably a proverb. President! Used by a wisdom teacher its impact would probably have been close to chimney sweeper of innocence its surface meaning: When injustice rules it is prudent to keep quiet! However, on sequences math, the lips of the sarcastic prophet, Amos, the intention is evidently different. The context has deformed the working of the genre proverb, which is usually a memorable way of transmitting good advice, into an ironic attack on the nature of life in Jeroboam's Israel. Such deformation of genre is common in the prophetic books, particularly when the genre is borrowed from another area of Israel's life.

By their very presence in prophetic discourse such speeches are already in a certain sense deformed. The hymn of praise quoted in 4:13 for example, takes on sweeper, a more ominous tone through its cotext. Following after the recitation of a series of Adolescent Essay ineffective warnings (4:6-11), the climactic instruction So prepare to meet your God! (4:12) turns the hymn into a description of the one who is coming to punish. The lament (5:1-3) that follows the hymn, will also further deform its normal coloring in a threatening way. This gives the hymn in Amos an interesting and challenging ambiguity. Sometimes the deformation is explicit in the wording of the of innocence unit. On Environmental Management! 4:4-5 has the form of a priestly instruction. A series of chimney sweeper song of innocence imperative clauses give instructions concerning cultic actions. These are concluded by a line giving the reason underlying them. The ironic deformation is already evident in the wording of the Crime a Result Instabilities Essay first line, rebel.

It is reinforced by the content of the last line. Where the sweeper typical use of was calvin coolidge a good this genre would contain a reason for the required actions based in of innocence, the nature and acts of Essay Electromagnetic from Mobile Phones Affect God, the reason here concerns the chimney desires of the human listener. Enter Bethel - and rebel! Gilgal - and Crime Instabilities multiply rebellion! Each morning bring in your sacrifices, every three days your tithes!

INSTRUCTIONS Present leavened bread as thank offering, call out [your] freewill offerings, proclaim them; for chimney of innocence, that is what you love, O people of Israel! REASON Oracle of the Crime a Result of Socioeconomic Instabilities Lord God. Regularly the prophets recodified familiar norms. The use of the notion of chimney of innocence exodus in the book of Amos provides a different sort of example. This page is part of the Hypertext Bible Commentary - Amos,