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Nov 17, 2017 Betty parris the crucible,
book report zolberg Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is betty parris the crucible not easy. A book report challenges students to Essay on Favorite think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is the crucible given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to critical write about a favorite character and other book details. Parris? But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and Essay The Use of Alternative Energy high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to betty parris the crucible Write a Book Report.
Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the book. Other? Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and betty parris the crucible paper at your side. Riis Half Lives? Jotting down page numbers and notes about betty parris significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to first school shooting write. Parris? Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. The Importance Of Youth? After reading the book, you are ready to start the writing process.
When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and the crucible publishing. In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for of Youth Essay book reports. Parris? Start your book report outline with the riis how the other half lives following five ideas. Betty Parris The Crucible? Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. Into? 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Parris? Book Details: Plot. Poetry? 5. Evaluation and Conclusion.
In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. The Crucible? Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Other Half? Most book reports begin with the betty parris basic information about the Essay book: the parris the crucible book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). Direct Price? The opening paragraph is the crucible also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the Essay writing of the parris book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the book a bestseller? Is the critical pedagogy author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to parris state why you chose to read it. In the body of the on Favorite book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the parris book is pedagogy definition about. Parris The Crucible? This is your chance to show you’ve read and understood the of Youth Essay book.
Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by parris the crucible, writing an Taking Our Dream Orbit Essay, overview of the betty story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the poetry reflections story (point of betty parris the crucible, view) and Our Dream Essay the tone or atmosphere of the betty parris book. Is it a creepy tale of sports, suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the betty parris main characters and poetry reflections identify the betty parris major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to first solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the parris story.
Instead, focus on Ministries Essay, the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the parris the crucible rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in pedagogy class. Book Reports on Non-fiction. Parris? If you are writing a book report on Essay of Alternative, a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to the crucible devote the The Use of Alternative body of betty parris the crucible, your book report to on Favorite a description of the betty parris the crucible book’s subject and the author’s points of view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and The Importance Essay arguments in an orderly manner. Betty? As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by first school, the author. Parris The Crucible? Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. Reflections? If you read a biography, write about some of the betty important events in reflections the person’s life.
Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is betty parris the crucible here that you’ll be able to Taking into offer your own critique of the book. Betty? What are the book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the poetry book hold your interest? What did you learn from the parris book? If you read a work of The Importance of Youth, fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in betty parris your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the Essay of Alternative book. Give your honest opinion of the betty book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Taking Our Dream Publishing.
After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. Betty Parris? As you edit, check your grammar and use of the direct shares correct guidelines for parris the crucible book quotes and writing the book title. Direct Shares? Give enough time to betty parris the crucible revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Essay The Use, Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report.
Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Betty Parris? Please use examples.” This type of first, writing prompt requires a persuasive style of parris, writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to direct price persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the parris ending! Rely on Essay The Use of Alternative, Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and betty parris the crucible one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction.
Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in poetry reflections helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your child’s writing.
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Nov 17, 2017 Betty parris the crucible,
Konzentrationlager Mauthausen Mauthausen # Unmittelbar nach der Besetzung Osterreichs wurde am 8. Parris The Crucible? August 1938 im Steinbruch des Donauortes Mauthausen ein „Au?enkommando des KZ Dachau errichtet; im Marz 1939 begann der Ausbau des selbstandigen Konzentrationslagers Mauthausen. On Favorite Character? Schatzungsweise waren in parris diesem Konzentrationslager seit 8. The Use Of Alternative Energy? August 1938 bis zur Befreiung am 5. Parris? Mai 1945, 335 000 Personen beiderlei Geschlechtes inhaftiert. Reflections? Nach noch erhaltenen Aufzeichnungen wurden in betty the crucible Mauthausen 122 767 politische Haftlinge auf die grausamste Weise ermordet. Au?er den oben Angefuhrten wurden weitere Zehntausende Haftlinge sofort nach der Einlieferung in Taking Our Dream into das Lager erschossen oder vergast. Betty The Crucible? Diese Haftlinge wurden von keiner Evidenzstelle erfasst und sind auch in direct shares price obiger Zahl nicht enthalten. Betty Parris The Crucible? Die uberwiegende Mehrzahl der Mauthausener Haftlinge waren Menschen, die wegen ihrer nationalen Zugehorigkeit, rassischen Abstammung, politischen Tatigkeit oder ihres religiosen Glaubens von den nationalsozialistischen Behorden als Volksschadlinge interniert wurden. Essay The Use? Au?erdem befanden sich hier kriminelle Haftlinge, die bis zum Jahre 1944 fast alle Haftlingsfunktionen besetzten. Erkennen konnte man den einzelnen Haftling nach dem auf der linken Seite in seiner Brusthohe angebrachten farbigen Dreieck, das anzeigte, ob es sich um einen politischen oder kriminellen Haftling handelte. Parris? Politische Haftlinge trugen ein rotes Dreieck und nach der Nation im Dreieck die Anfangsbuchstaben ihrer Nation. Character? So z. The Crucible? B. die Franzosen ein rotes Dreieck mit „F, Jugoslawen ein „J, Sowjetrussen „SU usw.
Die Juden mussten unterhalb des roten Dreiecks einen gelben Davidstern tragen. Essay Of Alternative Energy? Die kriminellen Haftlinge, im Lager Berufsverbrecher genannt, trugen ein grunes Dreieck, die sogenannten Asozialen ein schwarzes, die Bibelforscher (Zeugen Jehovas) ein lila, die Homosexuellen ein rosa Dreieck. Betty Parris The Crucible? Unterhalb des Dreiecks wurde die Haftlingsnummer getragen. Essay On Favorite? Die Haftlinge durften sich gegenuber der SS nur mit ihrer Nummer melden. The Crucible? Ihre Namen wurden beim Eintritt ins Lager ausgeloscht — sie wurden Nummern! Dem Hauptlager Mauthausen waren noch folgende Nebenlager unterstellt: -- Gusen I-III (Rustungswerke und Steinbruch, za. Poetry Reflections? 10.000 bis 20.000 Haftlinge); -- Melk, unter der Tarnbezeichnung „Quarz gefuhrt (4.000 bis 6.000, Rustungswerk); -- Ebensee, „Zement und „Kalk (8.000 bis 14.000, unterirdisches Rustungswerk); -- Linz I, II, III (insgesamt 7.000, Hermann-Goring-Werke, Rustungswerk); -- Steyr (4000, Rustungswerk); -- Saurerwerke Wien (1.500, Rustungswerk); -- Junkerswerke Wien (2.000, Flugzeugwerke); -- Wr. Betty Parris? Neustadt (1.000, Flugzeugwerk); -- Wiener Neudorf (3.000, Rustungswerk); -- Gro?raming (800, Staudammbau); -- Nibelungenwerke in poetry St. Betty? Valentin (1.100, Rustungswerk); -- Klagenfurt (90, SS-Schule); -- Loiblpa? Sud und Ost (zusammen 5.000, Tunnelbau); -- Schlier-Vocklabruck (1.500, Rustungswerk und Falscherwerkstatte) -- Peggau (600, Rustungswerk); -- Wien-Jedlesee (400, unterirdisches Rustungswerk); -- Lenzing (Frauenlager, 600, Textilbetrieb); Die Lebensbedingungen in manchen dieser Filiallager waren noch schlechter als in sports direct price Mauthausen selbst. Kommandant des Lagers war seit 17.
Februar 1939 der SS-Standartenfuhrer Franz Ziereis aus Munchen. The Crucible? 1936 bis 1939 war Ziereis Bildungsreferent der SS in The Use of Alternative Oranienburg. Auf dem Appellplatz mussten die Haftlinge dreimal taglich - morgens, mittags und abends - ob Regen oder Sonnenschein, zum oft stundenlangen Zahlappell antreten. Betty? Hier wurden sie - ohne Grund - im Laufschritt, hupfend, hinlegend und robbend, unter standigen Prugeln und Fu?tritten der SS herumgejagt. Essay Of Alternative Energy? Hier fanden offentliche Hinrichtungen statt, bei denen samtliche Haftlinge, mit den Augen zum Galgen gerichtet, strammstehen mussten. Betty The Crucible? Hier wurden sie von abgerichteten Hunden zerrissen. Hier hingen oft tagelang, als abschreckendes Beispiel, die Leichen der Gehenkten, wahrend Gruppen von Haftlingen stundenlang davor stehen mussten, weil sie mit dem Gemordeten entweder im gleichen Kommando gearbeitet oder in Essay on Favorite Character der gleichen Wohnbaracke gelebt hatten. The Crucible? Hier konnten aber auch die Haftlinge nach der Arbeit die karge Zeit, die ihnen der Bettenbau und das Spindputzen gewahrten, im gemeinsamen Spaziergang verbringen. Links vom Eingang ins Lager, am Turm befestigt, hangt eine Eisenkette, die zur Befestigung des geoffneten Tores dienen sollte. Reflections? Sie hat vielen Opfern das Genick gebrochen. Parris? Die Kette wurde den Unglucklichen um den Hals gelegt und das freie Ende ruckweise angezogen.
Dies konnte jeder SS-Mann nach Belieben tun. Essay On Favorite Character? Da aber das erste Anziehen selten den gewunschten Erfolg brachte, wurde diese entsetzliche Prozedur mehrmals wiederholt. Rechts vom Haupttor in der Steinmauer sind noch heute Eisenringe eingegossen, an betty parris, denen Haftlinge bei Tag und Nacht angebunden wurden. Essay The Use? Da jeder vorubergehende SS-Posten, je nach Temperament, seine Wut an betty, den Gefesselten auslassen konnte, waren die Schreie der Unglucklichen, besonders bei Nacht, im ganzen Lager zu horen. An der Klagemauer standen tage- und nachtelang Rotarmisten, osterreichische, deutsche, belgische und tschechische Antifaschisten, franzosische und polnische Partisanen. Taking Essay? Hier stand auch der heldenmutige General der Roten Armee, Dimitri M. Betty? Karbyschew , dessen standhafte Weigerung, in Essay Energy den Dienst des deutschen Faschismus zu treten, seinen qualvollen Tod bedeutete. Betty The Crucible? Karbyschew wurde mit zirka 700 Haftlingen im Februar 1945 uber personlichen Auftrag des Lagerkommandanten Ziereis ermordet. Pedagogy? Die entkleideten Haftlinge standen bei strengem Frost fast drei Tage an betty parris the crucible, der Mauer und wurden in poetry reflections Abstanden von zirka drei Stunden mit Wasser begossen! Die erste Baracke links am Appellplatz war Block 1. Betty? Er hat eine bunte Vergangenheit.
Erst Kantine, dann Post, Lagerschreibstube und Bordell. Als letzter Block in Character der ersten Reihe steht der Block 5. Er war der Judenblock (spater vorubergehend in parris the crucible der Stube A Haftlingsrevier). Shares? Die schandlichen, unaussprechlichen Qualereien, denen die unglucklichen Insassen dieses Blocks ausgesetzt waren, waren die Ursache, dass Nacht fur Nacht Juden in betty parris dem nur wenige Schritte vor ihrem Fenster gespannten, mit Starkstrom geladenen Stacheldraht, Selbstmord verubten. Sports Direct Shares? Morgens hingen dann unzahlige Leichen im Draht. Betty? Beim Morgenappell kam es ofters vor, dass der Lageralteste dem Lagerkommandanten ein „judenreines Lager meldete. Shares? Eine bei der unmenschlichen SS beliebte Totungsart, vor allem bei Juden, war das „Dreschen. Das ausgesuchte Opfer, dem der Weg durch das Fenster in betty the crucible den Draht durch einen SS-Mann verstellt war, musste sich, den Kopf in die Hande gestutzt, auf die Erde setzen, worauf drei bis vier SS-Leute mit Ochsenziemern — den gleichen, die zur Verabreichung der „25 dienten — im Takt des Getreidedreschens auf den Kopf des Unglucklichen einschlugen. Essay Of Alternative? Sie waren sorgsam bedacht, ihm nicht mit einem einzigen Schlag den Schadel einzuschlagen. Betty Parris The Crucible? In wenigen Stunden war der Kopf zu einer unformigen Masse von doppelter Gro?e angewachsen, den der Ungluckliche mit beiden Handen am Kinn stutzen musste, da er anders nicht aufrecht gehalten werden konnte.
Nur der Tod erloste den Gequalten erst in poetry zwei oder drei Tagen von seinen Leiden. Bis Ende 1944 durfte ein Jude nicht langer wie drei Tage leben. Betty Parris? Binnen drei Tagen musste er sterben. Zwischen dem Block 1 und 2 fanden die „Bockstrafen statt. Character? Die Exekution wurde von SS-Mannern mit Ochsenziemern vorgenommen.
Der Haftling musste sich, oft mit entblo?tem Gesa?, uber den Block legen, worauf die beiden SSler mit voller Wucht abwechselnd die Schlage austeilten. Block 13 war der Zugangsblock fur tschechoslowakische Haftlinge. Betty The Crucible? Besondere Bedeutung erlangte er nach dem Anschlag auf Reinhard Heydrich in sports direct price Prag (27. Betty The Crucible? Mai 1942). Poetry? Sogleich nach dem Bekanntwerden des Attentats auf Heydrich verbreitete sich Angst und Schrecken uber das Lager. The Crucible? Die Tschechen wurden aus allen Arbeitskommandos entfernt, jede arztliche Behandlung wurde verboten und selbst die schwerkranken Haftlinge wurden aus der Revierbaracke entfernt. Essay On Favorite Character? Tage- und nachtelang mussten die tschechischen Haftlinge exerzieren und wurden am Appellplatz herumgejagt.
Viele Angehorige der tschechischen Intelligenz, Arzte, Professoren und Kunstler, haben sich damals den Todeskeim geholt. Dieses Ereignis trug viel zur Starkung der Lagersolidaritat bei. Durch schwerste Arbeit und mangelhafte Nahrung haben sich die Reihen der „Poiitruks bald gelichtet. Die noch aktionsfahigen, aber vollig waffenlosen Insassen unternahmen anfangs Februar 1945 unter Fuhrung und Leitung von russischen Offizieren einen Ausbruchsversuch. Parris The Crucible? Zirka 700 ausgebrochene Haftlinge wurden — wo immer aufgegriffen — erschlagen. Mass School Shooting? Erschlagen nicht nur von der SS, sondern von allen aufgebotenen Mannschaften ihrer Hilfsorganisationen. Betty The Crucible? Als blutige, verstummelte Leichen wurden sie auf Lastwagen oder in poetry reflections Bauernfuhrwerken ins Lager geschleppt. Betty? Die SS nannte diesen Massenmord „Muhlviertler Hasenjagd . Reflections? 19 Haftlinge konnten sich retten. Parris? Zuletzt barg der Block 20 mehrere Wochen ein Arbeitskommando, das sich mit der Falschung von Pfund- und Dollarnoten, Passen, Dokumenten und Briefmarken fur das Oberkommando der Deutschen Wehrmacht befasste. Taking Into? Dieses Kommando befand sich dann bis Ende des Krieges im Nebenlager Schlier-Vocklabruck. Vom Haupttor kommend stehen rechts vom Appellplatz drei Steinbauten.
Der erste Bau ist die Wascherei, heute Kapelle und Weiheraum. Betty Parris The Crucible? Unter der Wascherei befand sich das Brausebad; hier wurden die Neuangekommenen gebadet, kahlgeschoren und erhielten ihre Haftlingskluft. Poetry? Das Brausebad fur Haftlinge wurde erst 1941 fertiggestellt, so dass in the crucible den Jahren 1939 bis 1941 uberhaupt keine Moglichkeit bestand, zu baden oder warmes Wasser fur die Reinigung des Korpers zu erhalten. Poetry Reflections? Nur einige Auserwahlte hatten das Gluck, durch ihre Verbindung zum Block- oder Stubenaltesten, einen Topf warmes Wasser zu bekommen. Parris The Crucible? Dazu kamen noch die Schwierigkeiten der Wasserversorgung fur das hochgelegene Lager. Of Alternative Energy? Bei ungenugender Wasserzufuhr oder Gebrechen der Leitungsanlagen wurde das Wasser abgeschaltet. Betty Parris? Dieser Zustand war besonders fur die Klosettanlagen katastrophal. Die Haftlinge mussten ihre Notdurft in Essay die zwischen den Baracken angelegten Senkgruben verrichten. The Crucible? Oft verschwand ein entkrafteter Haftling in der Senkgrube. Pedagogy Definition? Dass gar manchmal Brutalitat und Bosheit einen solchen Unfall verschuldeten, war in the crucible einem SS-Lager nicht verwunderlich.
Zwischen der Wascherei und der Steinmauer mussten sich vorher die ankommenden Haftlinge entkleiden und bei jedem Wetter stundenlang nackt stehen. Reflections? Wahrend der Wartezeit sorgten die SS-Leute fur ihr Vergnugen. Betty The Crucible? Wehe dem unglucklichen Haftling, der durch irgendeinen Umstand den SS-Wachen aufgefallen ware oder in Essay The Use of Alternative den Zugangspapieren als besonders gefahrlich bezeichnet wurde. Parris The Crucible? Vom Kommandanten angefangen bis zum letzten Posten, SS-Arzt oder Verwaltungsbeamten, sie alle beteiligten sich an Taking into Orbit Essay, den unaussprechlichen Martern und Qualereien. Betty Parris The Crucible? Wohl eine der grausamsten Szenen hat sich im Sommer 1942 bei der Einlieferung der gro?en Wiener Eisenbahnergruppe abgespielt. Critical Pedagogy Definition? Unvergessen soll es bleiben, dass hier sechs Wiener Eisenbahner von Hunden und SS-Angehorigen zu Tode gehetzt wurden. Das nachste Gebaude ist die Kuche. The Crucible? Sie war wohl mit den modernsten Geraten eingerichtet, doch von den wertvollen Lebensmitteln, die hier verkocht werden sollten, haben die Haftlinge nichts erhalten. Into Essay? Vom Kommandanten angefangen bis zum einfachen Blockfuhrer haben sie alle ihre privaten Kuchen mit Lebensmitteln aus den Bestanden der Haftlingskuche versorgt.
Was ubrigblieb wurde von einem Teil der kriminellen Kuchenarbeiter zu schwungvollem Schleichhandel ausgenutzt. Die Tagesration fur einen Haftling betrug laut Aufzeichnung der SS-Wirtschaftsleitung: In der Fruhe 1/4 l Knorrsuppe, mittags ein 3/4 l Steckrubeneintopf mit Kartoffeln; abends 25 dkg Brot und 2,5 dkg Wurst. Betty Parris? Sonntag abends wurde anstatt Wurst 2,5 dkg Margarine und ein Suppenloffel Marmelade ausgefolgt. In seinen durch dicke Mauern von der Au?enwelt getrennten Einzelzellen hat sich wohl das Entsetzlichste der an pedagogy definition, Schrecken reichen Geschichte des KZ Mauthausen abgespielt. Betty The Crucible? Erganzungsverhore von politischen Haftlingen oder alliierten Soldaten (vor allem Flieger), die weder von der Gestapo noch von der politischen Abteilung zu einem Gestandnis gebracht werden konnten, wurden hier vorgenommen. Essay On Favorite? Uberlebten sie diese Methoden, hingen sie am anderen Morgen als „in den Freitod gegangen an parris, einem Mauerhaken der Zelle. On Favorite Character? Unter dem Bunker war das erste Krematorium . Betty? Seine Feuer brannten Tag und Nacht und der aus dem Kamin schlagende Flammenschein war weithin im Donautal sichtbar. Essay Of Alternative? Neben diesem Krematorium befand sich der Sezierraum, wo auf dem heute noch dort befindlichen Seziertisch den toten Haftlingen Goldzahne gezogen wurden. Betty Parris The Crucible? Wenn gewisse Leichen besonders schone oder interessante Tatowierungen hatten, wurde die Haut abgezogen und entsprechend prapariert. Mass? Das Zahngold ist der Deutschen Reichsbank ubermittelt worden.
Spater musste ein zweiter Verbrennungsofen aufgestellt werden, der mit Olfeuerung versehen war. Das Massensterben der Haftlinge Ende des Jahres 1944 hat dann die Aufstellung eines dritten Doppelofens fur Kohlenfeuerung notwendig gemacht, der unter dem Eingang zum neuen Revier erbaut wurde. Der Vormarsch der russischen Armee hat die Evakuierung der ostlich gelegenen KZ notig gemacht; dadurch wurde ein Teil der abtransportierten Haftlinge auch nach Mauthausen gebracht. Parris? Unfassbarer Uberbelag der Haftlingsbaracken zwang die Haftlinge, beim Schlafen sitzende Stellung einzunehmen, wobei einer hinter dem anderen sitzend, zwischen den gegratschten Beinen des Hintermannes Platz nehmen musste. Zu dieser Zeit kamen auch Frauentransporte ins Lager, die anfangs im Block 16, dann in poetry den Baracken 16 bis 20 und in Steinbruchbaracken Unterkunft fanden. Eine Vergro?erung des Lagers war durch die Schaffung des Lagers III und eines sogenannten Zeltlagers herbeigefuhrt.
Hier gab es keine hygienische Vorrichtung, keine Kanalisation, kein Wasser. The Crucible? Der standig sinkende Gesundheitszustand lie? die Zahl der Arbeitsunfahigen bedeutend steigen. Pedagogy? Im Zeltlager wurden im Juni 1944 vorwiegend Warschauer Frauen, im Marz und April 1945 Tausende ungarische Soldaten konzentriert. Betty The Crucible? Die im Zeltlager inhaftierten Personen wurden in reflections der Lagerschreibstube nicht erfasst. Betty Parris The Crucible? Im Lager III wurden im Marz 1945 ca. Character? 3.000 schwache Haftlinge zur Liquidierung in the crucible der Gaskammer konzentriert.
Den Schlussel zu diesem Lager hatte nur die SS. Essay? Trotzdem gelang es der Widerstandsbewegung, einen Schlussel nachzumachen, und Hunderte von den zum Tode Bestimmten konnten nachts herausgeholt werden. Da die taglichen Todesopfer in the crucible den vorhandenen Krematorien nicht mehr eingeaschert werden konnten, musste in direct shares price einem Feld, anschlie?end an betty the crucible, den Lagerbereich, in Taking into Orbit Essay Marbach „bei der Linde, ein Massengrab ausgehoben werden, in betty parris the crucible dem mehr als 10.000 Leichen begraben liegen. School Shooting? Au?erhalb des Lagers, nachst der Ruckseite des Blocks 15 wurde die Asche der verbrannten Leichen uber die Boschung entleert. Parris The Crucible? In den letzten zehn Monaten vor der Befreiung starben monatlich zirka 9.000 Haftlinge. Our Dream Essay? So starben allein im Monat April 1945 im KZ Mauthausen laut SS-Aufzeichnungen 11.525 erfasste Personen. An einem einzigen Tag, zum Beispiel am 25. Betty Parris? April 1945, starben im Lager insgesamt 1.131 Personen. Pedagogy? Davon waren 753 politische Haftlinge verschiedener Nationalitat, 1 Bibelforscher, 2 Zigeuner, 78 sowjetische Kriegsgefangene, 266 Juden, 5 Asoziale, 26 kriminelle Haftlinge.
An der Boschung des ehemaligen „Sanitatslagers befanden sich funf bis zehn Meter au?erhalb der SS-Postenkette Himbeerstraucher. Parris? Im Sommer der Jahre 1942 und 1943 hat die SS-Lagerfuhrung mehrmals Arbeitskommandos aus arbeitsunfahigen und kranken Haftlingen zusammengestellt und diesen aufgetragen, Himbeeren fur die Haftlingskuche zu pflucken. Direct? Die Haftlinge, denen man verschiedene Gefa?e zum Sammeln der Fruchte aushandigte, wurden in betty the crucible das Sanitatslager gefuhrt und dort vom SS-Kommandofuhrer aufgefordert, Beeren von den Strauchern zu pflucken. Our Dream Orbit Essay? Als sich die Haftlinge auf Grund dieser Aufforderung zu den Himbeerstrauchern begaben, verlie?en sie die gro?e Postenkette, somit das Lagergebiet; damit war fur die SS-Posten der „offizielle Grund gegeben, die Haftlinge zu erschie?en. Betty Parris? Auf diese Art wurden die jeweiligen Himbeerpflucker-Kommandos „auf der Flucht erschossen — liquidiert. Der Steinbruch war das Um und Auf des Lagers. First Mass Shooting? Seinetwegen wurde das KZ Mauthausen errichtet, seinetwegen mussten Zehntausende Menschen sterben. Parris? Hier wurden in first mass school den letzten Kriegsjahren riesige Rustungswerke der Ruhrmagnaten errichtet.
Der Steinbruch hat die meisten Opfer gefordert. Betty Parris? Der Steinbruch war nicht nur zur Vernichtung von Menschenleben bestimmt, sondern sollte auch einen Teil des gro?enwahnsinnigen Bauprogramms eines Hitler erfullen. Critical Pedagogy Definition? Dort wurde unter Hintansetzung der primitivsten Sicherheitsvorkehrungen das gro?tmogliche Arbeitspensum verlangt und mit aller Brutalitat eingetrieben. Betty Parris The Crucible? Hier hatte man die beste Moglichkeit, Haftlinge ohne viel Zeitverbrauch und am bequemsten bis zur todlichen Erschopfung zu jagen. Mass Shooting? Einen erbarmungslosen Stein auf den Schultern, bis 50 kg schwer, im Laufschritt, standiges Treten und Prugeln, und bald brach das Opfer zusammen, um irgendwo zu sterben. Die steilen Wande des Steinbruchs dienten wie nichts anderes dazu, um zu ihren Fu?en die Opfer zerschellen zu lassen; der gro?te Teil der ersten Gruppe von Juden aus Holland musste auf diese Weise ihr Leben lassen. Betty The Crucible? Die SS nannte dies scherzhaft „Fallschirmspringen. Sports Direct Shares Price? In seinen tiefen Tumpeln hat mancher Verzweifelte Befreiung aus untragbarer Qual gesucht oder er wurde von der SS hineingeworfen.
Die Stra?e, die vom Lager in betty parris den Steinbruch fuhrt, und die die Haftlinge, die im Steinbruch arbeiteten, zweimal passieren mussten, war nicht nur durch einen einfachen Stacheldraht ohne Starkstrom abgeschlossen, sondern auch durch zahlreiche SS-Posten, die nur darauf warteten, durch den Abschuss eines Haftlings drei Tage Sonderurlaub und eine Geldpramie zu erhalten. Mancher „Steinetrager wurde so „auf der Flucht erschossen. Essay The Use Of Alternative? An manchen Tagen lag hier eine ganze Reihe von Erschossenen, die bewies, dass es im Steinbruch wieder einmal „rundgegangen war. Betty Parris? Einzelne Stellen an The Use Energy, dieser Stra?e hatten ihre besondere Benennung, so das von der SS benannte „Judenloch, das vielen verzweifelten Juden das Ende brachte, oder der „Rosengarten, der fur viele alliierte Offiziere die letzte Station war. Parris? Bevor man die Todesstiege betrat, befand sich rechts von der Stra?e ein Garten, wo die SS fur ihre Frauen Rosen zuchtete. Sports Direct? Die zur Ermordung bestimmten Haftlinge wurden aufgefordert, Rosen zu pflucken; beim Betreten des Gartengelandes wurden sie von der SS erschossen. Die Todesstiege prasentiert sich heute in parris the crucible einer geradezu promenadenhaften Form. Taking Our Dream Into Essay? So war sie nicht immer. Betty? Ihre heute gleichma?igen, normalen Stufen waren damals willkurlich aneinandergereihte, ungleich gro?e Felsbrocken der verschiedensten Formen. Direct? Oft einen halben Meter hoch, verlangten sie beim Steigen gro?te Kraftanstrengung. Betty Parris The Crucible? Oft fehlten sie ganz und lie?en eine steile Stelle Lehmboden offen, die — besonders bei feuchtem Wetter — zu schweren Sturzen fuhrte.
Und wie freute sich die entmenschte SS, wenn sie die letzten Reihen einer abwartsgehenden Kolonne durch Fu?tritte und Kolbensto?e zum Gleiten brachten und diese gleitende und fallende Menge, die Vordermanner mitrei?end, in critical pedagogy einem wusten Haufen die Treppen hinunterkollerte. Betty The Crucible? Deshalb war es ein Gebot der Vorsicht, beim Abmarsch ins Lager, der immer mit einem Stein auf der Schulter angetreten werden musste, solche Stellen zu wahlen, die den wenigsten Kraftverbrauch beanspruchten. Essay The Use Energy? Wehe dem, der dabei zuruckblieb und dem sich keine helfende Hand bot. Die den Abschluss bildenden SS-Leute trieben die geschwachten Nachzugler mit unbarmherzigen Schlagen und Tritten an. The Crucible? Die Stiege zum Lager mit ihren 186 Stufen nahm oft dem ausgemergelten Korper die letzten Reserven und war in reflections zahllosen Fallen der Schlu?punkt eines tapferen Lebens. The Crucible? Moge sie ein Sinnbild des Kampfes gegen den Faschismus sein.
Am 5. Mai 1945 stie?en die amerikanischen Truppen in poetry den Raum um Linz vor. Betty? Gleichzeitig erhoben sich unter der Leitung des Internationalen Komitees (die illegale Widerstandsleitung der Haftlinge) die uberlebenden Insassen von Mauthausen. Das Internationale Komitee ubernahm das Lager, bewaffnete die Haftlinge und organisierte die Verteidigung gegen die Horden der SS, die noch in into Essay den letzten Tagen alle Haftlinge liquidieren wollten. Betty Parris? Amerikanische Truppen befreiten das Lager am 5./6. Character? Mai.
Am 7. Mai 1945 war das Gebiet im KZ Mauthausen endgultig von der SS gesaubert und alle Haftlinge befreit. Hans Marsalek/Josef Kohl, Wegweiser durch Mauthausen, herausgegeben vom Verband osterreichischer Widerstandskampfer und Opfer des Faschismus. Der Beitrag macht sehr betroffen und ist wirklich erschutternd. Betty The Crucible? Sollte weiteste Verbreitung (Ubersetzungen) erfahren, da fur die politische Bildung und die noch immer anhaltende Diskussion uber Gaskammern extem relevant. Poetry Reflections? Pflichtlekture fur Schulen!
Dr. Karl Anton Glaubauf. Leiter der Haftlingsrevolte war der osterreichische Widerstandskampfer und Ritterkreuztrager Generalstabsoberst Heinrich Kodre, der die Aktion des 20. Juli 44 in betty the crucible Wien zum Erfolg fuhrte, weshalb sich ihm die Haftlinge infolge seiner militarischen Kompetenz unterstellten. First Mass? Im Gegensatz dazu war die SS der Meinung, Kodre wurde von den Haftlingen getotet werden, weshalb der Ritterkreuztrager als Ehrenhaftling im Lagerbordell untergebracht war.
Die Haftlinge waren aber uber Kodres Widerstandstatigkeit, die heute nicht einmal Fachleuten mehr bekannt ist, obwohl sie im Standardwerk von Marsalek leicht nachzulesen ware, wesentlich besser informiert als die SS. Betty The Crucible? Literaturkenntnis ist offensichtlich heute auch bei Fachleuten nicht mehr vorauszusetzen, wie die Kodre-Diskussion zeigte.
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26 Awesome Resume Mind Maps to Inspire You. Parris! A memory-jogging exercise and a creative way to show off your accomplishments. If you'd like to school shooting mind map your own resume, here are some free tools: Freemind arguably the best known free, downloadable mind maping software. Freeplane a better Freemind than Freemind, I switched to using this a few years ago. Xmind nice user inteface and the crucible available in 7 languages. bubbl.us cute tool, lets you make the mind maps in your browser window. Dabbleboard a cool online charting tool that can be used for mind maps, flow charts and more.
MindMeister is another online mind mapping site with very handy features. Into Essay! Their basic/free plan is very limited (you're only allowed to save 3 mind maps) but they provide a free resume mind map template so you can get started quickly: Subscribe to betty the crucible JobMob via RSS or email and follow me on Twitter for more ways to use mind maps in your job search. Job Search Expert, Professional Blogger, Creative Thinker, Community Builder with a sense of humor. I like to help people. At The Last Minute: Where To Find Summer Jobs on Twitter. Poetry! 32 Brilliant Celebrity and Celebrity Wannabe Actors’ Resumes. Although you have worked hard, But I feel that these kind of betty, resume format are not in practice. Taking! We should go for such a format which is very simple, straight forward so that a recruiter may not be puzzled or feel any type of stress. How ever a great creative work! Great article, and great collection of resources.
Just a slight correction, the parris link that you#8217;ve provided to price our resume template is broken. It should be pointing to: As this is a template, all MindMeister users can clone this map to their account and get started right away. Likewise, using our handy sharing features, instead of presenting an image, you could embed your mind map resume directly into a webpage. Betty! Thanks again for the mention, and happy mind mapping! I love these! Before you even read the mind maps you can tell so much about the person.
The format, the pedagogy definition colors, the parris the crucible pictures give such insight into the person. So powerful! But I do understand that most recruiters would have no idea what to do with or how to read these mind maps, I think they are a good idea. If nothing more than a tool for the job seeker to understand themselves. High value! Mind Map resumes are great way to stand out from the crowd! Some of the more colourful and linear Mind Maps (Jane Brotchie, Jennifer Goddard, Skanda Kumarasingam and Zehra Oguz Lebrun) have been created using iMindMap from reflections, ThinkBuzan. Betty Parris The Crucible! We offer a free-for-life version of the mass school shooting software called iMindMap Basic which you can download at http://www.ThinkBuzan.com.
Philip- you wouldn#8217;t send a mindmap resume to a recruiter unless you wanted to show off your creativity. Otherwise, you might put it on your website. Dan- it#8217;s Jacob #128578; Thanks for pointing out the parris the crucible broken link, I just fixed it. Kimba- agreed! It#8217;s a great way to plan your more conventional resume, which you would send to recruiters. Charlotte- thanks for pointing that out. Great selection of maps!
You may find some other interesting examples in the #8220;careers#8221; section of the mind map library at http://www.biggerplate.com. Even if you dont submit the map itself to a recruiter, it is a great way of brainstorming and exploring your personal and critical pedagogy definition professional strengths. Everyone should give it a try! I#8217;m glad you liked my mind map. You asked me privately how this mindmap came about. Betty Parris The Crucible! I produced this after becoming a licensed instructor for imindmap see http://www.thinkbuzan.com/uk/trainers/jane_brotchie. This is Essay The Use, not free software, but I invested in it as it provides lots of extra functionality and is really simple to use. Parris The Crucible! There are lots of free programmes that are great too. The beauty of mindmapping is that it helps you take your thinking one step further after I created this I actually saw my work experience in definition a different light. I think now you have reminded me of this I should update it to include on my new website at betty, http://www.crystalclearwriting.co.uk.
This is The Use Energy, a great collection thanks for betty the crucible pulling it together. The idea for my CV came from a similar one produced by Michael J Scheroter when he worked for Essay Character MindJet. I liked it so much as it provided links between the main themes of betty the crucible, my career. It showed progression and Character development really whilst providing material in a more familiar list format. Betty The Crucible! Due to Essay on Favorite the number of betty the crucible, nodes in Essay Energy my mind map/resume I actually walk through an IBIS map/decision tree with every employer. Question Should we hire Richard? Idea 1 We hire Richard.
Idea 2 We don#8217;t hire Richard. Betty Parris The Crucible! I then go through all of the positives of school shooting, hiring me and the potential risks/negatives. I then do the same with not hiring me. By the betty parris end of sports direct shares price, it, I always get hired. Hi, Thanks for your post. Betty The Crucible! I used mind manager 8 to sports direct create my resume. The Crucible! I was learning about mind mapping and reflections had the idea of parris the crucible, trying it on my CV, as i was looking for a new job. Essay The Use Energy! Now i use it to resume books, courses, even in business#8230; I never sent my mind map CV, but it really helped me to structure my experience in my head, and betty parris the crucible be prepared for interviews. Since I use mindmapping a lot in my job, it gave me the idea to create also a CV version. I use this mindmap version a lot when I introduce myself individually to team members of a project I#8217;m starting. It just is a great way to get a clear overview over first mass shooting, who I#8217;m, what I do and betty what thrills me.
I advice everybody to sports direct shares price make such a version#8230; Thank you noticed my mind map. I have used Freemind to create it. Then I have added a simple browser extension in HTML code to display the page on the internet. Since I have had an episodic career, I think it is recognized best through a mindmap. I have just written it in Swedish when I am talking to Swedish employers. My very best regards! Terrific! I use Mind Mapping with clients to parris help them figure out their career paths. These are great examples to share to definition help them create resumes and to realize all the skills, talents, experience, and passions they bring to parris the crucible the table. Thanks for sharing!
MindMeister seems to into Essay be most common of these. Parris! I created mine as well with it and I am proud enough of it to share it in here also. Timo- good job. I would just add some images to make it more visually appealing and meaningful, such as employers logos. And instead of saying #8216;Recommendation available on request#8217;, link to a recommendations page online, such as on your personal site or on Essay The Use of Alternative Energy your LinkedIn profile. [#8230;] of JobMob #8212; a creative and sometimes funny blog about betty parris job search. Essay On Favorite! He recently compiled 23 examples of resumes created using mind mapping or idea mapping. Betty! Maybe some of these resumes will inspire you to on Favorite make [#8230;] [#8230;] 11) 26 Awesome Resume Mind Maps to Inspire You [#8230;] [#8230;] Via jobmob.co.il addthis_pub = #039;bovee#039;; Comments Off [#8230;] [#8230;] For creative roles, your CV can be a vehicle to share your eye for design, your innovative ideas or your unique ways of thinking.
Here are some great Creative CV ideas. [#8230;] [#8230;] For creative roles, your CV can be a vehicle to share your eye for design, your innovative ideas or your unique ways of thinking. Betty Parris! Here are some great Creative CV ideas. First Shooting! [#8230;] [#8230;] A creative resume, designed by the crucible you, such as a mindmap resume [#8230;] [#8230;] A memory-jogging exercise and a creative way to Essay on Favorite show off your accomplishments. [#8230;] [#8230;] representation that you can reference when you answer questions about yourself. Here is are some examples of mind mapping exercises done for CV planning. Betty Parris! You could also use a mind map that is divided into [#8230;] [#8230;] representation that you can reference when you answer questions about yourself. Here is are some examples of Character, mind mapping exercises done for CV planning. You could also use a mind map that is betty, divided into [#8230;] [#8230;] des gens perdent du temps quand ils font leur CV, car ils n’utilisent pas la bonne methode.
26 Awesome Resume Mind Map Examples. The Job Tips Newsletter Will Teach You How To Find A Job NOW Discover how your resume can attract [#8230;] [#8230;] mais surtout de montrer leur motivation, d’une autre facon que durant un entretien d’embauche. 26 Awesome Resume Mind Map Examples. The Job Tips Newsletter Will Teach You How To Find A Job NOW Discover how your resume can attract [#8230;] [#8230;] Concise Learning ™ Concise Learning Method. Into The Book: Summarizing: A Pirate#039;s Life. Sales Simulation Training. 3 LITTLE PIGS: MIND MAP USING READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES. Into the Book: Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies. 26 Awesome Resume Mind Map Examples. [#8230;] [#8230;] A memory-jogging exercise and a creative way to show off your accomplishments. [#8230;] [#8230;] representation that you can reference when you answer questions about yourself.
Here is are some examples of mind mapping exercises done for poetry reflections CV planning. You could also use a mind map that is betty parris the crucible, divided into [#8230;] 28932 followers 2495 likes 2259 followers 1361 followers 1658 JobMob Insiders 881 posts 11599 comments. Join 9887 JobMob subscribers to get free exclusive content such as The Ultimate Twitter Job Search Guide. Subscribe to JobMob® and Download The Ultimate Twitter Job Search Guide. Easily save it as a PDF or print ??for?? daily use.
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Nov 17, 2017 Betty parris the crucible,
cbt case study essay Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Schizophrenia: A Case Study. University of Minnesota. Journal of betty Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Journal, 12, (1) 13-25, 1998. Cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) has rarely been applied as the primary treatment for the multiple, severe and persistent problems that characterize schizophrenia. This case study describes the process of CBT in the long-term outpatient care of a young woman with schizophrenia. The study highlights the adaptation of cognitive-behavioural strategies to the unique needs of schizophrenia and presents data regarding clinical outcomes in Our Dream into Orbit Essay this case. Measures of psychosocial functioning, severity of symptoms, attainment of treatment goals and hospitalisation data were used to assess change over the 3- year treatment period and at 1-year follow-up.
Results indicate considerable improvement in all outcome variables and maintenance of treatment gains. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of cognitive-behavioural interventions in the treatment of schizophrenia. Cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) has been widely used and its effectiveness established with numerous patient populations and problems (Beck, 1993). However, there has been limited application of betty the crucible CBT techniques in the treatment of mass persons with schizophrenia and little research regarding its efficacy with this population. This neglect may be due to the dominance of pharmacological treatment and the decline of psychotherapy, the severity of the betty the crucible, disorder, or the inadequacies of Character previous attempts to understand and manage schizophrenia from betty the crucible, a cognitive behavioural framework (Birchwood Preston, 1991; Goggin, 1993) There is a growing commitment to the design of psychotherapeutic treatments that are grounded in knowledge of the psychopathology of specific diagnostic groups and tailored to the unique needs of the population (Hogarty et al., 1995; Liberman, 1993). This paper will highlight current clinical findings and critical issues regarding schizophrenia that must be considered in order to develop an effective disorder relevant cognitive-behavioural treatment of schizophrenia. A model of pedagogy CBT of schizophrenia responsive to these issues will be described and parris, illustrated by a detailed case study.
Schizophrenia: Current Research and Critical Issues. Schizophrenia is defined by positive symptoms (hallucinations and delusions), disorganised speech and behavior, negative symptoms (affective flattening, abolition, etc.) and significant impairment of psychosocial functioning. While it has been considered a uniformly chronic and progressively debilitating disorder, recent long-term outcome studies suggest the course and outcome of schizophrenia is quite varied and Energy, that outcomes can be significantly influenced by betty parris the crucible medications and psychosocial interventions (Carpenter Strauss, 1991; McGlashan, 1988). Schizophrenia is also characterised by cognitive, psychophysiological, interpersonal and coping skills deficits that result in school marked vulnerability to stress (Rolzman, 1987; Seidman, 1984; Zubin, 1986). Stress, coping and the individual's response to his or her disorder significantly influence the severity of parris the crucible disability in schizophrenia. Relapse is frequent and there are identifiable prodromal symptoms and stages of decompensation that involve problems in affective regulation and Essay The Use of Alternative Energy, management of stress (Herz, 1985, 1989). Parris! Relapse has been specifically associated with stressful life events (Luckoff, Snyder, Ventura, Nucchterlein, 1984) stressful interactions with family members (Leff Vaughn, 1985), and overstimulating residential and treatment environments (Cournous, 1987; Drake Sederer, 1986).
Previous research has suggested identification of prodromal symptoms and early intervention can be effective in reducing relapse (Herz, Glazer, Mirza, Mostert, Hafez, 1989). There are also discrete phases in the process of recovery that need to be understood in treatment of schizophrenia in order to not precipitate decompensation due to overly aggressive rehabilitation efforts (Breier Strauss, 1983; Carr, 1983; Neuchterlein; 1992; Strauss, 1989). Numerous authors have reported that intensive rehabilitation attempts precipitated relapse in first 6 months of treatment (Drake Sederer, 1986; Hogarty et al., 1991; Lin, Kett, Caffey, 1980). While it is commonly accepted that the experience of self is impaired in schizophrenia, there has been limited focus on the subjective experience of persons with schizophrenia (Bradshaw Brekke, in review; Strauss Estroff, 1989). Strauss (1989) has highlighted the need to Taking Our Dream Orbit Essay, focus on parris the crucible the interaction between the person and his disorder: how the person's goals, feelings regarding illness and self and Our Dream Essay, ways of managing affect the course of the disorder and vice versa. Similarly, Estroff (1989) has emphasized that focusing on the impact on the self of the person with schizophrenia is critical for treatment of schizophrenia. Assessment and treatment focused primarily on symptoms and betty parris the crucible, psychosocial functioning while important is incomplete. Instead, as Strauss (1989) has stated, attention to life trajectories, personal goals, characteristic approaches to regulating one's life. is essential. These findings regarding illness-specific deficits in schizophrenia suggest a conceptual and empirical foundation for the development of CBT with schizophrenia. They highlight the need for shares (I) specific coping skills that help the client modify environmental stresses, change perceptions and parris the crucible, interpretations of events, reduce physiological arousal and manage affect, and (2) focus on the interaction of the illness and the person. Enhancement of the client's ability to cope with stress and manage affect is essential to reflections, prevent relapse and betty parris the crucible, improve functional agility.
Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment and Schizophrenia. Previous CBT with schizophrenic clients has focused primarily on modification of hallucinations and delusions. Several studies describe positive results with the use of graded, nonconfrontational examination of evidence and the development of alternative explanations to modify the strength of hallucinations and delusions and to increase control of these symptoms (Beck, 1952; Chadwick Lowe, 1994; Fowler Marley, 1989; Hartman Cashman, 1983; Holel, Rush, Beck, 1979; Lowe Chadwick, 1990; Milton, Patwa, Hafuer, 1978; Rudden, Gilmore, Frances, 1982; Tarrier et al., 1993; Watts, Powele, Austin, 1973). Others have described the use of CBT as an adjunctive therapy in Taking into Orbit residential and inpatient treatment settings. Kingdom and Turkington (1991, 1994) describe the use of a destigmatising, normalising rationale to parris, explain symptom emergence and management to clients. Their results suggest that these methods resulted in reduced levels of symptomatology, hospitalisations and improved social adjustment. Perris (1988, 1992) reports successful use of cognitive milieu treatment with patients living in group homes in Essay Character Sweden. In a single subject design study of the CBT of four persons with schizophrenia who participated in betty the crucible outpatient treatment, Bradshaw (1997) found that clients experienced considerable reduction in symptomatology, rehospitalisations and improvement in psychosocial functioning and attainment of treatment goals that were maintained at 1-year follow-up.
Taken as a whole this literature suggests the potential usefulness of mass CBT with schizophrenic clients. However, these initial clinical findings are limited due to significant methodological problems: some have described relatively brief periods of experimental treatment with brief follow-up; others lack designs that control for the multiple treatments clients received in inpatient settings; most lack standardised measures of outcome and provide limited posttreatment data. In addition, there has been little comprehensive application of CBT to the multiple problems of schizophrenic clients over the long-term course of the disorder. Studies of the treatment process and outcome of betty parris the crucible CBT with schizophrenic clients are few and need further replication. This case study describes a model of CBT that is responsive to the unique issues of persons with schizophrenia, delineates the use of critical definition CBT strategies in the three year outpatient treatment of a schizophrenic client and provides outcome and follow up data at one year post treatment.
CASE DESCRIPTION AND CONCEPTUALIZATION. Carol is a 26-year-old single White female. She is a high school graduate and completed 1 year of college. She was raised in an upper-middle-class family where academic and career success were extremely important as was their conservative Christian faith. She was the third of five children. The Crucible! Carol was a good student, hard working and somewhat self-critical. She was shy but had several friends and dated occasionally. After graduation from high school Carol went out of state to college.
She received passing grades her first year but began to experience auditory hallucinations and into, delusions. She began to betty the crucible, act in first mass school shooting bizarre ways and withdrew from people. She was hospitalised at age 18 for 1 month and dropped out of college. In the past 7 years she has been hospitalised 12 tunes. She has been unable to work and was supported by SSI. There was no history of psychiatric illness in the family. Parris The Crucible! Her family was supportive of her financially. Carol was discharged from a psychiatric hospital after 2 months of inpatient treatment. Her diagnosis was schizophrenia, undifferentiated type, chronic. Her Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) at discharge was 30.
She lived with her parents and was on Essay SSI. She took 500 mg of thorazine daily and was medication compliant. Carol was referred by betty her psychiatrist for ongoing psychotherapy as part of her discharge plan to help her adapt to Taking Our Dream, the demands of parris the crucible community living and manage her illness. Cognitively she experienced auditory persecutory hallucinations and delusions as well as frequent cognitions like, I'm no good, I can't do anything, I'll always be this way. Affectively she had flat affect and into, anxiety related to interpersonal situations and tasks and the content of the hallucinations and delusions.
Interpersonally she was withdrawn and socially isolated. Behaviourally she was inactive, unable to work or live independently. Her basic self-care was severely limited. Carol's psychosocial functioning was significantly impaired by the interaction of her illness and her methods of coping. The hallucinations, delusions and cognitions interfered with her functioning. Her coping methods of betty parris the crucible avoidant behavior toward tasks and interpersonal situations and the increase in negative symptoms (apathy, avolition, anhedonia) to deal with stress in of Alternative Energy turn increased anxiety, negative cognitions and psychotic symptoms. Four outcome variables were used in this study: symptomatology, psychosocial functioning, attainment of treatment goals and hospitalisations. Symptomatology was measured by the Global Pathology Index (GPI) of the Hopkins Psychiatric Rating Scale (Derogatis, 1974). The GPI is an 8-point behaviourally anchored scale that describes severity of symptoms.
Psychosocial functioning was measured by the Role Functioning Scale (RFS) (McPheeters, 1988). RFS is made up of four subscales: work, social, family and independent living subscales. Each scale is a 7-point behaviourally anchored scale. The RFS and GPI are rater-based scales. Betty! Hospitalisation was measured by reflections the number of times hospitalised and betty the crucible, total days in hospital. Attainment of treatment goals was measured by Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) (Kiresuk Sherman, 1968). In GAS behavioural descriptions of functioning for various levels of goal achievement are developed and scored with the pedagogy, client. A score ranging from -2 (regression in goal attainment) through 0 (attainment of goal) to +2 (exceeds standards) is given for each goal based on the client's attainment. The GPI, RFS and betty the crucible, hospitalisation data were independently obtained by the case manager on a quarterly basis throughout the 3-year treatment period and at 6 months and of Alternative, 1-year follow-up.
GAS was used as a pretest-post-test assessment of overall accomplishment of treatment goals. THERAPIST CLIENT JOINING. The development of a therapeutic relationship is critically important in work with persons with schizophrenia (Frank Guncerson, 1990; Lamb, 1982). Rapport took some time to develop (approximately 3 months) and was established by consistent use of the core conditions of betty genuineness, respect and accurate empathy. The worker was directive, active, friendly and used feedback, containment of feelings, reality testing and poetry, self-disclosure to develop the real relationship and lessen transferential problems.
For example, Carol had enjoyed playing softball and had been an parris the crucible, avid baseball fan. When the therapist shared that he had similar interests it became a regular point of conversation and strengthened their connection. Self-disclosure was also used to normalise situations and promote discussion of real life difficulties. Length of sessions were determined by the client's capacity at the moment and would range from 15 minutes to first mass school, an hour or more. Betty! The therapist and client frequently went for walks during the sessions when Carol was agitated or lethargic. The goals of this phase were to poetry reflections, develop the therapeutic alliance regarding the rationale of treatment, to facilitate the betty the crucible, client's understanding of the process of cognitive-behavioural treatment and to of Alternative Energy, establish agreement about treatment goals. This phase of treatment (approximately 2 months) involved the therapist taking an betty, active role educating the client about schizophrenia and the process of Essay treatment. The normalising destigmatising procedure described by betty Kingdom Turkington (1991, 1994) was used to explain the experience of pedagogy definition schizophrenia. This rationale emphasizes the biological vulnerability to parris, stress of individuals with schizophrenia and the importance of Essay The Use of Alternative identifying stresses and improving methods of betty parris coping with stress in order to minimise disabilities associated with schizophrenia. The ABC model (Ellis, 1970) was used to teach the cognitive view and process of treatment.
Issues from the client's daily life were used to highlight the cognitive components of feeling and behavior. The therapist and client would label the A (activating event) and C (the emotional consequence) of an emotional episode and the therapist would help the client figure out possible self- statements (B) that could have led to the emotional consequence or that would lead to other emotional responses. It was initially difficult for critical pedagogy Carol to do this in times of stress or when applying the ABC model to significantly loaded situations. The ABC model was reinforced by use of empathic reflective comments that highlighted the cognitive underpinnings of the situation. Frequent repetition and personal examples from the therapist were helpful in her gaining a reasonable understanding of the cognitive model over a period of 3 months. EARLY PHASE OF TREATMENT. The focus of the parris, early phase of treatment (approximately 12 months) was on her inactivity and her difficulty managing stress and anxiety. Carol would spend much of her time in bed, watching TV and smoking. When she would consider doing some activity or was requested by sports price her parents to parris, do something, she would become anxious and hallucinations and delusions would increase.
She would think that the task was too much for her and Essay The Use Energy, would withdraw to her room. She coped with the stress of her symptoms by apathy and withdrawal. The weekly activity schedule (Beck, 1984) was useful in helping her cope with the loss of structure she experienced after leaving the hospital and the symptoms she experienced. Using a blank calendar Carol recorded her activities in the crucible three time blocks: morning, afternoon and evening. Sports Price! She and the therapist reviewed the activities to identify what things improved or exacerbated her condition and to help Carol understand her reactions to different events.
Behavioral assignments using a graded hierarchy of parris small tasks were used to mass school shooting, increase her activity level. Initial focus was on daily living skills (self-care, cooking, cleaning, time management). Exploration of previous interests and the use of an parris, interest inventory were helpful in stimulating her interests and expanding the range of her activities. She had previous experience in arts and crafts and began to do paint by number paintings. This was followed by learning macram and adding other activities such as bowling that could be done with other people. Mastery and pleasure ratings were later assigned to activities to evaluate the benefits of the activities and to identify cognitive distortions that minimised her sense of accomplishment and pleasure. Stress management skills were developed in three ways. First, a variety of relaxation methods were discussed and Carol expressed an interest in meditation.
The therapist taught her meditation (Bensen, Carol, 1974) and they practised meditation for critical definition short periods in each session. She gradually established a regular meditation practice twice daily for 15 minutes. Second, she was assisted to identify her personal signs of stress and symptoms of relapse. Parris The Crucible! These were organised as low, medium and definition, high signs on her stress thermometer. She posted the thermometer on her door and recorded her stress temperature each day. As she recognised signs of stress she would meditate briefly as a coping response to parris the crucible, stress. Third, habitual stress situations were defined and Essay Energy, meditation was used to cope with anticipated stressful events. The major cognitive theme that emerged in betty the crucible this phase was Carol's faulty attributions related to self-efficacy. She significantly underestimated or overestimated her ability to control others, events in the world and her own behavior. The process of faulty attributions resulted in her ongoing negative beliefs regarding her own efficacy. Thoughts like I can't do it; nothing I do can change it; I have no control over things predominated in the early stages of critical pedagogy definition treatment and were a major target of behavioural treatment using graded task assignment.
During this period Carol's symptoms lessened and her functioning, especially independent living skills, improved and she moved into an apartment by parris herself. She bad also developed skills in identifying and coping with stress and had experienced some increased sense of self-efficacy. This phase (approximately 16 months) emphasized identification of habitual stressful situations and cognitions and utilization of cognitive strategies to cope with them. Sports Price! Three major areas of cognitive work emerged: dealing with social situations, the impact of betty schizophrenia on Carol's sense of self and fears of relapse. Social situations were a major source of stress. Critical Definition! Social interaction is a well-documented source of stress for schizophrenic clients (Wing, 1983). Parris The Crucible! Many problems in social relations were due to errors in social perceptions of critical definition self and others.
Carol frequently had problems reading social cues and would interpret them by overgeneralising, personalising, and selective abstraction. She was trained to check it out by identifying automatic thoughts, evaluating evidence, exploring alternative explanations and parris, generating new coping self-statements to replace the automatic thoughts (Beck Weishaar, 1989; Burns, 1980). In cognitive work it was more effective to focus on Carol's distortions of events and interactions rather than on underlying schemes and irrational beliefs. This was done because of initial deficiencies in school introspection and logical reasoning and parris, her frequent use of denial and projection. Similarly, hallucinations and delusions were not directly challenged, but were interpreted as reactions to stress, personal or interpersonal concerns. The focus was on the context triggering these symptoms rather than on their content.
She was assisted to develop skills in checking it out and identifying the difference between confirmable and perceived reality in order to develop more realistic ways of interpreting events (Waler, DiGiuessepe, Wessler, 1980). Social skills deficits specific to stressful social situations were assessed by role-play with the therapist and social skills training was provided to improve coping in on Favorite Character interpersonal situations. Two social skills deficits were addressed. Betty! These included expressing feelings and assertiveness. Specific and reoccurring stressful situations were identified and plans made for positive coping responses.
Cognitive coping skills were developed by collaborative empiricism, guided discovery, cognitive modelling, rehearsal, role-play and homework assignments. Carol took a class at the community college, began to go out weekly with a friend and worked 10 hours a week as a volunteer at a food shelf. With increased interaction with people she experienced heightened anxiety and paranoia. This was worked on behaviourally by planning activities in a way that ensured she had a sufficient balance of time alone and time with others and by Essay on Favorite the use of planned regression in which Carol would take a day off in which she stayed in her apartment and betty, had no contact with others. Fears of Relapse. As Carol made major progress in various areas of poetry her life, she frequently experienced anxiety, fears and hopelessness regarding relapse. She would experience anxiety, fatigue or depression that was of a low level and parris, within normal limits and interpret them as I'm going crazy. Her experience of vulnerability and issues of low frustration tolerance, overgeneralising and catastrophising contributed to this problem. Fears of relapse were dealt with in several ways. First, education about her illness and interpretation of her experiences as normal responses to poetry, stress helped her understand and parris, normalise her experience. The Use! Second, preventive actions were taken that focused on reviewing her stress thermometer, schedule of activities, sleep patterns, exercise, diet and level of betty parris the crucible stimulation in order to protect against relapse.
Third, fears were examined using Socratic questioning, examining evidence and mass school, alternative explanations. (Padesky, 1993). Impact on the Self. As Carol became more confident of her stability and experienced success in her life, she began to talk about the impact of the crucible schizophrenia on her sense of Taking Our Dream Orbit self. Living with schizophrenia impacted her in betty two major ways: limited self- concept and low self-esteem. Given the early onset, severe disability and long-term nature of her illness, Carol had a limited self-concept, primarily, I'm just a mental patient. This limited and negative view of herself was worked with by examining evidence that supported other roles she currently was performing, e.g., student, friend, employee and by exploring other areas of life interests including travel, skiing and her desire to get married. Carol's self-esteem was also impaired by frequent self-criticism and negative comparison to on Favorite, other non-ill individuals.
Selective perception and attributions of negatives to oneself and positives to others were common. Because individuals with schizophrenia have exceptionally negative and distorted appraisals of themselves and events (Robey, Cohen Gara, 1989; Warner, Taylor, Powers, Hyman, 1989; Wilson, Diamond, Factor, 1990), a cognitive technique, PSOB, pat self on back, was developed by parris the crucible the author to train clients to more positively appraise situations and first shooting, themselves (Bradshaw, 1997, 1996). Carol was trained to identify three positive events in her life each day, no matter how minor the event may be. She then generated a list of positive words and qualities which described the event and identified positive qualities in themselves that were associated with the event. Betty! PSOB was very useful as a daily exercise to promote positive self- appraisal and enhance self-esteem. Two major tasks were addressed in this phase (approximately 3 months): dealing with thoughts and first school shooting, feelings regarding ending treatment and developing plans to maintain treatment gains. Several techniques were used to facilitate maintenance of change. First, a review was done of stresses, signs of stress and effective coping strategies.
Second, these were written down on cue cards and reviewed each day by the client. Third, a 3-month termination plan was developed. The plan included agreed upon procedures to handle emergencies, gradual reduction of sessions, planned phone contact and booster sessions. Data indicated that Carol experienced improvement in psychosocial functioning, achievement of goals, reduction of symptomatology and number of hospitalisations that were maintained at the crucible 6 months and I-year follow-up (cf. Table I) Regarding psychosocial functioning she showed major improvements in work, independent living, social and family relations. The summed subscale scores of the pedagogy definition, RFS provided an overall psychosocial functioning score. RFS score of 6 at baseline indicated severely impaired functioning in all areas. Her score of 27 at the conclusion of the study indicated major improvements in parris psychosocial functioning: relationships with family and friends, ability to independently manage personal and household tasks and performance of reflections school, employment or household tasks.
Symptomatology as measured by GPI was reduced. Carol's baseline score of 7 indicated severe levels of symptomatology including inappropriate mood, hallucinations and delusions, impaired judgement, disorganised conceptual processes, disabilities in volitional and motor areas and inability to care for self and risk to self. Variables Pretest 1 2 3 6 mos 1 yr. Psychosocial 6 11 19 27 27 27. Symptomatology (GPI) 7 6 4 1 1 1. Hospital Days* 60 0 0 0 0 0.
Goal Attainment (GAS)19.85 80.15 80.15. *In the 3-month period prior to beginning CBT. At the conclusion of the study her GPI score of 1 indicated only slight impairment. Betty Parris The Crucible! There were few symptoms present and little distress was reported by sports shares price her. Interpersonal functioning was relatively unimpaired and affect and cognition were within normal limits. The Goal Attainment score was calculated by summing the scale score values and using the GAS conversion key for equally weighted scales to determine the GAS score. A score of betty 50.00 represents the expected level of goal attainment in this measure. Carol's pre-treatment score was 19.85. Her posttreatment GAS score of 80.15 indicated significant attainment of treatment goals beyond that expected.
Examples of direct shares treatment goals accomplished include clinical and socially important tasks such as improved daily living skills, living independently, developing social support systems, returning to school and betty, obtaining employment. Carol had no psychiatric rehospitalisation in the 4-year study period. This compares favourably to her extensive history of hospitalisations prior to poetry, treatment and to the national average rehospitalisation rate of 35%-50% (Anthony, Cohen, Vitalo, 1978). This case study of the 3-year supportive CBT of the crucible a woman with schizophrenia found major improvements in psychosocial functioning, attainment of treatment goals, reduction of symptomatology and hospitalisations that were maintained at one year follow-up. This suggests the Essay of Alternative, potential effectiveness of CBT interventions in treatment of the multidimensional nature of parris the crucible problems facing individuals with schizophrenia. Replication of this study by other clinician researchers and additional testing of this model in community support settings are needed to critical, establish the utility of CBT of schizophrenia. The model presented expands the use of CBT with persons with schizophrenia from the focus on brief treatment of delusions and hallucinations to the multiple problems experienced by clients over the course of recovery from the disorder. Betty! The model, which is grounded in recent research regarding schizophrenia, is a beginning attempt to identify treatment issues and apply specific interventions to stages of treatment and the process of recovery in schizophrenia.
While models of The Use cognitive bias, themes and parris, schemes have been identified with other disorders, little work has been done in this area with persons with schizophrenia. Several significant cognitive themes were identified in this client that became important areas of treatment. Reflections! These themes are similar to Young's impaired autonomy and performance schemas (Young, 1994). Future research regarding schemas in schizophrenia could be useful in identifying cognitive processes that impact functioning in schizophrenia. This study also highlights the importance of parris the crucible understanding the impact of schizophrenia on sports shares price the self and the unique process of change in schizophrenia (Strauss, 1989). Strauss has highlighted the betty the crucible, importance of studying the interaction between the person and the disorder in order to poetry, understand and treat schizophrenia. Specifically the interaction around life trajectories and personal goals is critical in exacerbating and maintaining pathology as well as driving improvement.
Work in the later stages of treatment focused on the deleterious effects of illness on Carol's sense of self; her heightened sense of vulnerability, limited self-concept and poor self-esteem. Use of examining evidence, alternative explanations and graded tasks in these areas was critical to her ability to successfully envision and betty parris the crucible, accomplish significant life goals. Anthony W., Cohen M., Vitalo, R. (1978). The measurement of sports shares price rehabilitation outcome. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 4, 365-383. Beck, A. (1952). Betty Parris The Crucible! Successful outpatient psychotherapy of a chronic schizophrenic with a delusion based on borrowed guilt. Psychiatry, 15, 305-312.
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