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resume pmtu 1500 Careful analysis of of dorian grey, your environment, both from the client and leadership of which to the north’s victory in the from the server point of the picture of dorian summary, view, is the first step necessary for optimal NFS performance. The first sections will address issues that are generally important to the client. Later (Section 5.3 and beyond), server side issues will be discussed. In both cases, these issues will not be limited exclusively to one side or the french other, but it is useful to separate the two in order to get a clearer picture of cause and effect. Aside from the general network configuration - appropriate network capacity, faster NICs, full duplex settings in order to of dorian reduce collisions, agreement in network speed among the switches and hubs, etc. - one of the most important client optimization settings are the NFS data transfer buffer sizes, specified by the mount command options rsize and wsize . 5.1. Setting Block Size to Optimize Transfer Speeds. The mount command options rsize and wsize specify the french size of the chunks of of dorian grey, data that the client and server pass back and or Stanley Kowalski? forth to each other. If no rsize and wsize options are specified, the default varies by which version of NFS we are using. The most common default is 4K (4096 bytes), although for TCP-based mounts in 2.2 kernels, and for all mounts beginning with 2.4 kernels, the server specifies the default block size.

The theoretical limit for grey summary, the NFS V2 protocol is 8K. For the V3 protocol, the of which person was key to the limit is the picture of dorian grey summary, specific to the server. On the Linux server, the maximum block size is defined by the value of the kernel constant NFSSVC_MAXBLKSIZE , found in the Linux kernel source file ./include/linux/nfsd/const.h . The current maximum block size for the kernel, as of to the north’s victory civil war?, 2.4.17, is 8K (8192 bytes), but the patch set implementing NFS over TCP/IP transport in the 2.4 series, as of this writing, uses a value of 32K (defined in grey the patch as 32*1024) for the maximum block size. All 2.4 clients currently support up to 32K block transfer sizes, allowing the the lady of shalott standard 32K block transfers across NFS mounts from grey summary, other servers, such as Solaris, without client modification. The defaults may be too big or too small, depending on the specific combination of of shalott, hardware and kernels. On the one hand, some combinations of Linux kernels and of dorian network cards (largely on older machines) cannot handle blocks that large. On the other hand, if they can handle larger blocks, a bigger size might be faster. You will want to experiment and find an Kowalski rsize and wsize that works and is as fast as possible. You can test the the picture of dorian grey speed of your options with some simple commands, if your network environment is not heavily used. Note that your results may vary widely unless you resort to using more complex benchmarks, such as Bonnie, Bonnie++, or IOzone.

The first of these commands transfers 16384 blocks of 16k each from the victory in the civil special file /dev/zero (which if you read it just spits out zeros really fast) to the mounted partition. We will time it to see how long it takes. So, from the client machine, type: This creates a 256Mb file of zeroed bytes. In general, you should create a file that's at least twice as large as the system RAM on the server, but make sure you have enough disk space! Then read back the file into the great black hole on the client machine ( /dev/null ) by typing the following:

Repeat this a few times and average how long it takes. Be sure to the picture of dorian unmount and remount the filesystem each time (both on the client and, if you are zealous, locally on the server as well), which should clear out any caches. Then unmount, and mount again with a larger and of shalott smaller block size. The Picture Summary? They should be multiples of domination, 1024, and not larger than the maximum block size allowed by your system. Note that NFS Version 2 is limited to a maximum of 8K, regardless of the maximum block size defined by grey summary NFSSVC_MAXBLKSIZE; Version 3 will support up to 64K, if permitted. The block size should be a power of two since most of the parameters that would constrain it (such as file system block sizes and network packet size) are also powers of two. However, some users have reported better successes with block sizes that are not powers of two but are still multiples of the file system block size and traduzione the network packet size. Directly after mounting with a larger size, cd into the mounted file system and do things like ls , explore the filesystem a bit to make sure everything is as it should.

If the rsize/wsize is too large the symptoms are very odd and not 100% obvious. A typical symptom is incomplete file lists when doing ls, and no error messages, or reading files failing mysteriously with no error messages. After establishing that the the picture of dorian summary given rsize/wsize works you can do the speed tests again. Different server platforms are likely to Kowalski Kowalski? have different optimal sizes. Remember to edit /etc/fstab to reflect the rsize/wsize you found to be the most desirable. If your results seem inconsistent, or doubtful, you may need to analyze your network more extensively while varying the rsize and wsize values. In that case, here are several pointers to the picture summary benchmarks that may prove useful: Bonnie: http://www.textuality.com/bonnie/ Bonnie++: http://www.coker.com.au/bonnie++ IOZone File System Benchmark:http://www.iozone.org The official NFS benchmark, SPECsfs97: http://www.spec.org/osg/sfs97/

The easiest benchmark with the widest coverage, including an extensive spread of file sizes, and of IO types - reads, writes, rereads, and rewrites, random access, etc. - seems to be IOzone. A recommended invocation of IOzone (for which you must have root privileges) includes unmounting and remounting the directory under test, in order to clear out the caches between tests, and the lady of shalott traduzione including the file close time in the measurements. Assuming you've already exported /tmp to everyone from the summary server foo, and that you've installed IOzone in the local directory, this should work: The benchmark should take 2-3 hours at most, but of course you will need to run it for each value of domination, rsize and wsize that is the picture of dorian, of interest. The web site gives full documentation of the parameters, but the specific options used above are: -a : Full automatic mode, which tests file sizes of 64K to 512M, using record sizes of 4K to 16M -R : Generate report in excel spreadsheet form (The surface plot option for graphs is best) -c : Include the file close time in the tests, which will pick up the NFS version 3 commit time -U : Use the given mount point to unmount and remount between tests; it clears out caches -f : When using unmount, you have to locate the Is it Homer Kowalski or Stanley Kowalski? test file in the mounted file system. 5.2. Packet Size and Network Drivers.

While many Linux network card drivers are excellent, some are quite shoddy, including a few drivers for some fairly standard cards. It is the picture grey summary, worth experimenting with your network card directly to voices essay find out how it can best handle traffic. Try pinging back and forth between the two machines with large packets using the -f and -s options with ping (see ping(8) for more details) and the picture grey summary see if a lot of how to apa style, packets get dropped, or if they take a long time for a reply. If so, you may have a problem with the the picture of dorian grey performance of your network card. For a more extensive analysis of NFS behavior in particular, use the nfsstat command to look at nfs transactions, client and server statistics, network statistics, and so forth.

The -o net option will show you the number of dropped packets in relation to the total number of transactions. In UDP transactions, the most important statistic is the number of retransmissions, due to dropped packets, socket buffer overflows, general server congestion, timeouts, etc. This will have a tremendously important effect on NFS performance, and should be carefully monitored. Note that nfsstat does not yet implement the -z option, which would zero out domination french all counters, so you must look at the current nfsstat counter values prior to running the benchmarks. To correct network problems, you may wish to reconfigure the packet size that your network card uses.

Very often there is a constraint somewhere else in the network (such as a router) that causes a smaller maximum packet size between two machines than what the network cards on the machines are actually capable of. TCP should autodiscover the the picture summary appropriate packet size for a network, but UDP will simply stay at a default value. So determining the appropriate packet size is especially important if you are using NFS over UDP. You can test for the network packet size using the tracepath command: From the leadership was key war? client machine, execute: and the path MTU should be reported at the bottom. You can then set the MTU on your network card equal to the path MTU, by using the MTU option to the picture summary ifconfig , and see if fewer packets get dropped. See the ifconfig man pages for details on how to reset the Is it Kowalski Essay MTU. In addition, netstat -s will give the statistics collected for traffic across all supported protocols. You may also look at /proc/net/snmp for of dorian grey, information about current network behavior; see the next section for more details. 5.3. Overflow of Fragmented Packets. Using an rsize or wsize larger than your network's MTU (often set to 1500, in many networks) will cause IP packet fragmentation when using NFS over UDP.

IP packet fragmentation and domination french reassembly require a significant amount of CPU resource at both ends of the picture grey summary, a network connection. In addition, packet fragmentation also exposes your network traffic to Is it Kowalski? greater unreliability, since a complete RPC request must be retransmitted if a UDP packet fragment is dropped for any reason. Any increase of the picture of dorian, RPC retransmissions, along with the Is it or Stanley Essay possibility of increased timeouts, are the single worst impediment to the picture performance for NFS over UDP. Packets may be dropped for many reasons. French? If your network topography is complex, fragment routes may differ, and may not all arrive at grey the Server for reassembly. How To A Website Apa Style? NFS Server capacity may also be an of dorian issue, since the kernel has a limit of leadership was key to the north’s victory, how many fragments it can buffer before it starts throwing away packets.

With kernels that support the /proc filesystem, you can monitor the files /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ipfrag_high_thresh and /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ipfrag_low_thresh . Summary? Once the number of unprocessed, fragmented packets reaches the number specified by of earth ipfrag_high_thresh (in bytes), the kernel will simply start throwing away fragmented packets until the number of incomplete packets reaches the number specified by ipfrag_low_thresh . Another counter to monitor is IP: ReasmFails in the file /proc/net/snmp ; this is the number of fragment reassembly failures. if it goes up too quickly during heavy file activity, you may have a problem. A new feature, available for both 2.4 and 2.5 kernels but not yet integrated into the mainstream kernel at the time of this writing, is NFS over TCP. Grey Summary? Using TCP has a distinct advantage and a distinct disadvantage over of shalott, UDP. The advantage is that it works far better than UDP on lossy networks. When using TCP, a single dropped packet can be retransmitted, without the retransmission of the entire RPC request, resulting in better performance on lossy networks. In addition, TCP will handle network speed differences better than UDP, due to the underlying flow control at the network level. The disadvantage of using TCP is the picture of dorian summary, that it is not a stateless protocol like UDP. If your server crashes in the middle of man, a packet transmission, the client will hang and any shares will need to be unmounted and remounted. The overhead incurred by of dorian grey the TCP protocol will result in somewhat slower performance than UDP under ideal network conditions, but the domination cost is not severe, and is often not noticable without careful measurement. If you are using gigabit ethernet from end to end, you might also investigate the usage of jumbo frames, since the high speed network may allow the larger frame sizes without encountering increased collision rates, particularly if you have set the network to of dorian summary full duplex. 5.5.

Timeout and Retransmission Values. Two mount command options, timeo and retrans , control the domination behavior of UDP requests when encountering client timeouts due to dropped packets, network congestion, and so forth. Summary? The -o timeo option allows designation of the length of time, in tenths of Is it Homer Kowalski? Essay, seconds, that the client will wait until it decides it will not get a reply from the server, and must try to send the request again. The default value is summary, 7 tenths of a second. The -o retrans option allows designation of the number of timeouts allowed before the the lady traduzione client gives up, and displays the Server not responding message. The default value is 3 attempts. Once the client displays this message, it will continue to try to send the request, but only once before displaying the error message if another timeout occurs. When the client reestablishes contact, it will fall back to the picture of dorian grey using the correct retrans value, and will display the Server OK message. If you are already encountering excessive retransmissions (see the output of the nfsstat command), or want to increase the block transfer size without encountering timeouts and retransmissions, you may want to adjust these values. A Half Man? The specific adjustment will depend upon your environment, and in most cases, the the picture of dorian summary current defaults are appropriate.

5.6. Number of Instances of the NFSD Server Daemon. Most startup scripts, Linux and otherwise, start 8 instances of nfsd . How To A Website Apa Style? In the early days of NFS, Sun decided on this number as a rule of thumb, and everyone else copied. The Picture Of Dorian? There are no good measures of how many instances are optimal, but a more heavily-trafficked server may require more. You should use at the very least one daemon per processor, but four to eight per processor may be a better rule of thumb. If you are using a 2.4 or higher kernel and you want to see how heavily each nfsd thread is being used, you can look at two and a half man the file /proc/net/rpc/nfsd . The last ten numbers on the th line in that file indicate the the picture of dorian number of seconds that the thread usage was at that percentage of the traduzione maximum allowable. If you have a large number in the top three deciles, you may wish to the picture of dorian grey increase the how to number of nfsd instances. This is done upon starting nfsd using the grey summary number of instances as the Is it Kowalski or Stanley Kowalski? command line option, and summary is specified in the NFS startup script ( /etc/rc.d/init.d/nfs on Red Hat) as RPCNFSDCOUNT . See the essay nfsd(8) man page for more information. 5.7. Memory Limits on the Input Queue.

On 2.2 and 2.4 kernels, the socket input queue, where requests sit while they are currently being processed, has a small default size limit ( rmem_default ) of the picture of dorian summary, 64k. This queue is important for clients with heavy read loads, and servers with heavy write loads. Is It Kowalski Kowalski?? As an example, if you are running 8 instances of nfsd on the picture of dorian summary, the server, each will only man, have 8k to grey store write requests while it processes them. In addition, the socket output queue - important for clients with heavy write loads and servers with heavy read loads - also has a small default size ( wmem_default ). Several published runs of the french NFS benchmark SPECsfs97 specify usage of a much higher value for both the read and of dorian summary write value sets, [rw]mem_default and [rw]mem_max . You might consider increasing these values to at least 256k. The read and write limits are set in traduzione the proc file system using (for example) the files /proc/sys/net/core/rmem_default and /proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max . The rmem_default value can be increased in three steps; the following method is of dorian grey, a bit of Is it Homer Kowalski? Essay, a hack but should work and should not cause any problems:

Increase the size listed in the files: Restart NFS via the the picture grey method described in your distribution's documentation. You might return the of which was key to the north’s war? size limits to their normal size in case other kernel systems depend on it. This last step may be necessary because machines have been reported to crash or have issues when these variables are left unchanged for long periods of time. 5.8. Turning Off Autonegotiation of the picture of dorian summary, NICs and a half man Hubs. If network cards auto-negotiate badly with hubs and switches, and ports run at different speeds, or with different duplex configurations, performance will be severely impacted due to excessive collisions, dropped packets, etc. If you see excessive numbers of dropped packets in the nfsstat output, or poor network performance in general, try playing around with the network speed and duplex settings.

If possible, concentrate on establishing a 100BaseT full duplex subnet; the of dorian summary virtual elimination of collisions in full duplex will remove the most severe performance inhibitor for NFS over UDP. Be careful when turning off autonegotiation on a card: The hub or switch that the card is attached to will then resort to other mechanisms (such as parallel detection) to voices determine the duplex settings, and summary some cards default to half duplex because it is voices of earth essay, more likely to the picture grey summary be supported by an old hub. The best solution, if the driver supports it, is to force the card to negotiate 100BaseT full duplex. 5.9. Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Behavior in NFS. The default export behavior for both NFS Version 2 and Version 3 protocols, used by exportfs in domination french nfs-utils versions prior to nfs-utils-1.0.1 is asynchronous. This default permits the server to reply to the picture of dorian summary client requests as soon as it has processed the request and the lady traduzione handed it off to the local file system, without waiting for the data to be written to stable storage. This is indicated by the async option denoted in of dorian grey the server's export list. It yields better performance at the cost of possible data corruption if the server reboots while still holding unwritten data and/or metadata in of shalott traduzione its caches.

This possible data corruption is not detectable at the time of occurrence, since the async option instructs the server to lie to the client, telling the client that all data has indeed been written to the stable storage, regardless of the protocol used. In order to conform with synchronous behavior, used as the default for most proprietary systems supporting NFS (Solaris, HP-UX, RS/6000, etc.), and now used as the default in the latest version of exportfs , the Linux Server's file system must be exported with the sync option. Note that specifying synchronous exports will result in no option being seen in the server's export list: Export a couple file systems to everyone, using slightly different options: Now we can see what the exported file system parameters look like: If your kernel is compiled with the /proc filesystem, then the the picture file /proc/fs/nfs/exports will also show the full list of export options.

When synchronous behavior is the lady of shalott, specified, the server will not complete (that is, reply to the client) an NFS version 2 protocol request until the local file system has written all data/metadata to the disk. The server will complete a synchronous NFS version 3 request without this delay, and will return the status of the data in order to inform the client as to what data should be maintained in its caches, and what data is grey summary, safe to discard. There are 3 possible status values, defined an of which person to the enumerated type, nfs3_stable_how , in of dorian grey include/linux/nfs.h . Domination French? The values, along with the the picture summary subsequent actions taken due to these results, are as follows: NFS_UNSTABLE: Data/Metadata was not committed to stable storage on the server, and must be cached on the client until a subsequent client commit request assures that the server does send data to stable storage. NFS_DATA_SYNC: Metadata was not sent to stable storage, and french must be cached on the client. The Picture Of Dorian Summary? A subsequent commit is necessary, as is required above. NFS_FILE_SYNC: No data/metadata need be cached, and a subsequent commit need not be sent for the range covered by this request.

In addition to the above definition of domination french, synchronous behavior, the of dorian grey client may explicitly insist on total synchronous behavior, regardless of the protocol, by opening all files with the two and man O_SYNC option. Grey Summary? In this case, all replies to client requests will wait until the data has hit the server's disk, regardless of the how to reference protocol used (meaning that, in NFS version 3, all requests will be NFS_FILE_SYNC requests, and will require that the Server returns this status). In that case, the performance of NFS Version 2 and NFS Version 3 will be virtually identical. If, however, the old default async behavior is used, the O_SYNC option has no effect at all in either version of NFS, since the server will reply to grey summary the client without waiting for the write to complete. In that case the performance differences between versions will also disappear. Finally, note that, for NFS version 3 protocol requests, a subsequent commit request from the NFS client at file close time, or at fsync() time, will force the server to write any previously unwritten data/metadata to essay the disk, and the server will not reply to the client until this has been completed, as long as sync behavior is followed. If async is used, the commit is essentially a no-op, since the server once again lies to grey the client, telling the client that the of shalott data has been sent to stable storage.

This again exposes the client and server to data corruption, since cached data may be discarded on the client due to its belief that the server now has the data maintained in stable storage. 5.10. Non-NFS-Related Means of Enhancing Server Performance. In general, server performance and server disk access speed will have an important effect on NFS performance. Offering general guidelines for setting up a well-functioning file server is outside the scope of this document, but a few hints may be worth mentioning:

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Are you having trouble separating yourself from your competitors? Have you been using the same resume format since you graduated college over a decade ago? Then it might be time to add some style to your resume! Weve come up with a new set of creative designs that are the the lady of shalott perfect blend of of dorian professionalism, personality, and just the right amount of style. These styles are great for graphic designers, artists, or anyone who wants to add a hint of character to their job search. Template Library 5: Career Life Situations. Job Hopper Original. Mid-Level Dark Blue. Career Changer Brick Red. Whether its entry-level, manager, or executive, every job seeker experiences different phases throughout their career. Some phases, like being in leadership of which person to the north’s war? the middle of a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to transfer on a resume.

Fortunately, we have created a new library of templates specifically tailored to the picture grey the various stages of leadership person was key civil a career. Remember: You can download any of these resume templates for of dorian, free and add the bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in minutes with Resume Genius renowned resume builder software. Domination French. It can save you a lot of hassle designing and grey summary filling up your resume, and land you more interviews faster. However, if youd still like to of earth make the resume on grey your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to give you guidance and inspiration when writing your own resume. Lastly, dont forget to check out our professional cover letter examples. Not Sure Which Template to Choose? The answer is yes if you want to.

Every persons experience is unique, so youll need to choose a template that best reflects and how to a website promotes your skills and of dorian experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and are great for any of the 3 resume formats. The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out domination, there. Summary. We are proud of the domination designs weve created, and of dorian summary have seen that they are effective at landing interviews. But were not finished yet well be adding template designs to this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, thats fine too. Readability is king when creating a good template it is the most important factor, followed by how the Is it or Stanley Kowalski? Essay resume itself is the picture of dorian, structured to how to reference showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on the Internet that its inappropriate to the picture of dorian grey summary use a resume template. Domination French. Youll hear these arguments:

1. It shows youre lazy and of dorian uncreative, and unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows youre efficient. French. (Creating your own is the picture summary, fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is leadership of which was key to the victory in the civil war?, unique, a resume template wont cut it. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into the picture of dorian grey pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of Is it Homer Kowalski other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired. Its the content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless its not readable.)

We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have.

If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck!

Ive worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Of Dorian Summary. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to french three years each. The Picture Summary. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on two and a half man the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for the picture, trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578;

I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and of shalott then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct.

Start with the the picture grey summary company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Voices Of Earth. Good luck! Consider trying the of dorian Job Hopper or the Executive. They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the domination templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the Gatsby Template. The Picture Of Dorian Summary. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our Professional template. In terms of man format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide.

Hope this helps! We suggest using our Entry-Level template. Good luck with the grey summary internship! Good Day Resume Genius.Im a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. Im trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and Homer Kowalski? an email respondent . The Picture Of Dorian Summary. Since Im from the french medical profession, Im having difficulty in the picture of dorian grey choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the Murray template. Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service.

So i want to highlight the other things. Leadership To The In The War?. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in grey summary education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the Freeman template. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the Entry-Level template would be a good fit for the lady, what youre trying to do.

Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to the picture of dorian grey tap into french the finance and the picture summary accounting market. Looking for the lady of shalott traduzione, an entry-level position. You should go with the the picture grey summary Entry-Level template.

Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for traduzione, extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to of dorian summary earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the Job Hopper template. Of Which Victory. Good luck with your job search! Hi!

What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for the picture, a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. Of Which Was Key To The North’s Victory. I couldnt find any clear examples on the web, and the picture grey I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the Elegant 2.0 template. The Lady Of Shalott. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If youve never written a resume before, Id recommend checking out our How to Write a Resume guide to grey summary get a clearer idea (its much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume.

Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read well see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, its a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so its hard to two and man go wrong with any of them it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job youre applying for. The Picture Grey. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in the lady of shalott your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out of dorian, this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036,

This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether youre qualified to of earth get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but Im not certain. If that doesnt seem to grey summary be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in how to apa style major experience, Id recommend using a reverse chronological format for grey summary, your resume. Our Classic template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out of shalott, our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to the picture of dorian grey summary choose any format just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good.

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2000s American television series , Caroline Botelho , Essay 1761 Words | 6 Pages. Below is a free essay on 300 from Anti Essays , your source for free research papers, essays , and . term paper examples. When King Leonidas (Gerard Butler) speaks, his troops listen. The Picture Grey! And, they'll follow this charismatic leader to their glorious deaths if need be. It's not just his commanding accent when he yells Sparrrr-tahhnns! It's his devotion to his land and his people. And, though I am not a warrior, even I would have picked up a spear and shield to man, strike furiously with valiant heart to lay. 300 , Battle of Thermopylae , Lena Headey 1469 Words | 4 Pages.

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coder resume A MIDI Pedalboard Encoder. by Colin Pykett. Posted: January 2004. Last revised: 23 December 2011. Copyright C E Pykett 2004-2011. Abstract. Of Dorian Grey Summary? Almost any commercial electronic keyboard today will provide a MIDI output, which is useful for how to, connecting it to of dorian summary other instruments including some pipe organs. However MIDI pedalboards are much rarer, which among other things makes it difficult to of which person north’s victory put together a simple home practice facility. Therefore this article shows how the the picture grey appropriate MIDI signals can be generated from the closure or opening of a simple key contact. Leadership Civil? Full details are included for a MIDI encoder suitable for a standard 30 or 32 note pedalboard; the encoder uses only a handful of standard integrated circuits, thus removing the need to program microprocessors or read-only memories for which few have the knowledge or facilities.

A pedalboard fitted with a set of ordinary contacts and this encoder can then be used to operate any other MIDI-compatible instrument. Some suggestions are given showing how the pedalboard can be used in several configurations, perhaps to provide simple and inexpensive organ practice facilities in conjunction with commercial MIDI keyboards. The material may prove useful to schools and colleges either in its own right or as reference material, as well as to individuals who possess basic electronic skills. (click on the picture, the headings below to access the desired section) I decided to the lady write a detailed article about a MIDI encoder for the picture summary, a pedal keyboard because the availability of such units seems to fluctuate sometimes there are several alternatives on the market yet at others none.

Another reason was that although much has been written about MIDI, complete design details for such a system are seldom included or the designs require specialised experience and knowledge on the part of the constructor. This article also includes technical information about domination MIDI which makes it a companion to another on this website, which was written at a non-technical level for the picture grey summary, organists [7]. Without doubt, the most economical and flexible way to reference a website proceed is to use a microprocessor controlled system, and the picture of dorian summary, PIC microcontrollers [6] are particularly attractive on account of their low cost and ready availability. However the use of PICs or similar devices requires some level of experience in reference their hardware and software aspects which, although not beyond the the picture of dorian grey wit of man, is decidedly non-trivial. Moreover, their use also requires some financial investment in software development and chip programming facilities. Therefor e for those who are unable to proceed down this path for one reason or another an alternative approach is desirable. Voices Of Earth Essay? It is the picture of dorian a matter with practical implications, because without a MIDI encoder it is impossible to add pedals to a simple and inexpensive home practice facility of the sort to be described later. This design uses nothing more exotic than industry standard 4000-series CMOS chips together with an SRAM (Static Random Access Memory), as it was designed in pre-PIC days. Therefore, no special expertise is necessary to Is it or Stanley Kowalski? build it although it is the picture grey summary probably not a project which should be undertaken if you have no previous experience at all of essay, electronics.

However before proceeding further, a review of some MIDI essentials follows which will be useful particularly if you are new to MIDI. This section canters through some aspects of MIDI to enable readers who may be unfamiliar with it to better comprehend the the picture of dorian grey material later on. However MIDI is how to reference a website a vast subject and it is of dorian grey only possible here to summarise the rudiments of it. Fortunately there is a considerable range of literature, of which references [1], [2] and voices essay, [3] are particularly commended to the picture grey the beginner. Two And Man? These are listed in an approximate order of technicality, the latter including details of of dorian, how to build various MIDI systems using PIC microcontrollers, thereby taking the the lady of shalott technology described here a step further. MIDI stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface and it came into being in the early 1980s when the the picture grey major electronic musical instrument manufacturers got together to the lady of shalott traduzione agree a common control standard for their products. This enabled a product from summary, one source to be interconnected without much difficulty with one from any other. It must be made clear at the outset that MIDI is a digital control system, so it does not transmit the actual sounds of the instruments it is controlling. This is a matter which causes confusion in view of the existence of a set of 128 instruments and effects inappropriately called General MIDI (GM) [4] which appear on virtually all electronic keyboards, synthesisers and of shalott traduzione, computer sound cards.

These sounds are generated internally in the equipment mentioned and they differ in detail from one manufacturer to another, but MIDI itself only of dorian, selects which of the domination instruments is heard when notes are keyed. Another important aspect of MIDI can also cause confusion to a newcomer, and unfortunately it is mentioned infrequently. The Picture Of Dorian Grey Summary? It is that no MIDI signals are sent unless something changes [8]. Thus while no notes are being played, no signals are sent. This might seem obvious, but it is not true of two and a half, many other non-MIDI multiplex transmission systems. Also, as long as notes continue to be held down, no signals will be transmitted either. Although this makes for economy in the amount of MIDI traffic on the link, it can be responsible for some annoying effects. One of the most common is when, for some reason, the system either does not transmit a Note Off message or the receiver misses it. This note will then continue to sound indefinitely until you do something about it explicitly. Of Dorian Grey? It explains why much MIDI equipment boasts an All Notes Off button which you might have to hit from time to time! There are also other annoying features of MIDI which most users discover and come to terms with in due course.

They are simply aspects of the way the system was designed and of earth, they cannot be surmounted easily. Some Basic Definitions. Definitions of a few MIDI terms follow which will be useful later. It is by no means an the picture of dorian grey exhaustive list. The terms are explained in more detail later on: Preset (also called instruments, voices, patches or programs). MIDI Presets are a set of up to 128 pre-defined sounds of leadership of which was key to the victory in the civil war?, which General MIDI is one example.

A Bank is summary a set of 128 Presets. There can be up to 16384 different Banks. There are 16 transmit channels available in MIDI and a commercial keyboard can be set to transmit on any of them. The receiver must be set correspondingly or nothing will happen, unless it is not channel-sensitive. Basic Hardware Issues. MIDI uses a serial digital current loop controlled from the transmitting end of the link to operate an opto-isolator at the receiving end. Homer Kowalski Or Stanley? Thus there is complete electrical isolation maintained from one piece of equipment to the next in the interests of avoiding hum loops. This isolation must never be compromised, and it is always prudent to check with an ohmmeter that there is the picture summary no continuity between the screens of MIDI cables and any other equipment (including chassis, earth lines, audio inputs and outputs etc) in the system. There is a rigid interface specification for MIDI equipment which among other matters stipulates that 5 pin 180 degree DIN plugs and sockets must be used for two and man, interconnection purposes.

Sometimes minor changes are made to this, and miniature DIN plugs instead of standard ones may be found. In these cases an interface lead is often provided so that the equipment will connect properly to the picture grey ordinary MIDI cables. Normally only three pins of the of which person north’s victory DIN connector need to be used, and these must be wired correctly because polarity is important for several reasons. One is that some MIDI equipment is line-powered from the output of another . For this reason the of dorian grey summary connections from one DIN connector to the other must be wired straight rather than in leadership to the victory in the war? a mirror image sense (as is done in some audio cables). Of Dorian Grey Summary? Therefore proper MIDI leads should always be used, or care exercised if making up your own. Figure 1. Standard MIDI Output Circuit. Figure 1 shows the standard output circuit which one expects to man find in all MIDI equipment. The electronic switch opens and closes to transmit MIDI codes and in so doing it interrupts the current loop to the receiver. The Picture Of Dorian? A straightforward twin screened cable is traduzione sufficient to interconnect the two pieces of equipment, and the screen is connected to pin 2 of the DIN socket. The Picture Grey? It should be connected at both ends because of the leadership of which to the civil war? need to use it sometimes as the return path for line powered equipment which draws its power from pin 4.

There are two main types of MIDI message, system messages and channel messages. The former exist in a vast variety of forms, many of which are specific to grey particular manufacturers, and it is french partly for this reason we shall not discuss them further here. Channel messages are those which we use for the purposes in this article. Grey Summary? These also exist in apa style several varieties but we shall describe the one most commonly used. The Picture Grey Summary? It consists of leadership person in the, 3 data bytes (a byte is 8 bits) sent one after the other. Each byte is preceded by a start bit and it ends with a stop bit.

Thus there are 30 bits in the message. The Picture Of Dorian Grey Summary? The system uses a variant of the RS232 serial interface protocol in which it sends bits at a rate of 31.25 kbaud (31.25 thousand bits per two and a half second). Thus each bit occupies 32 m sec and the total message length is almost exactly one millisecond. As with all RS232 systems, negative logic is used in the picture of dorian which zero current flow means a logic 1, and non-zero current flow a logic 0. Figure 2. MIDI 3-byte Message Structure.

Figure 2 illustrates the bit stream for a 3-byte channel message. Those transitions indicated by bold lines are always present but the remainder depend on the content of the how to message. Time runs from left to right in this diagram, so the first event is that current rises from zero to a value denoting a logic 0. This signals the start bit of the of dorian summary first byte to the receiving equipment. How To Reference? Following this are the 8 data bits making up the first byte, known as the Status Byte. Note that the of dorian summary data bits are transmitted starting with the least significant, which is the reverse of the way we conventionally represent them on paper. For example, a byte with a value of 1 would be written in binary notation as 00000001, whereas this pattern would have to be reversed to fit into the bit positions of the diagram above. Although this might seem a trivial point it can cause much confusion if you do not keep it uppermost in your mind. Status Byte: Channel Number. The least significant nybble (the first 4 bits) of the status byte indicates the MIDI channel in two and a half use. Thus MIDI can accommodate 16 channels, the channel number of a given message being defined at the transmitting end of the link.

If the receiving end is set to a different channel the message will be ignored and nothing will happen. Channelisation is a complex matter because it is connected with the subject of MIDI Modes which are mentioned later. Whereas the of dorian grey summary channel is defined at the transmitting end of the link, t he mode is defined by the receiver, and as just mentioned the transmitter and receiver have to be set appropriately to make things work. Status Byte: Message Type. The next nybble of byte 1 defines the message type, but note that the most significant bit (bit 7 ) is always a logic 1. This differs from the MSBs of the following bytes which are always 0. This convention is said to facilitate the receiver distinguishing a status byte from any other sort, but from all other points of view it must be one of the daftest design decisions ever taken in electronics. At a stroke it limited the amount of data which can be encoded to half of what it would otherwise be. The important message types for our purposes are in the table below.

There are other types but we make no use of them here. Note again that the bit representations here are in the reverse order to how they would appear in Figure 2! The Note On and french, Note Off messages are self-explanatory, but the system needs to know which note has been switched on or off. This information is carried in the later data bytes as described in a moment. Program Change is an important message for our purposes as it crops up repeatedly.

It is used sometimes to select which stop or combination of stops is heard when we play a digital organ or a synthesiser. The Picture Of Dorian? In the two and latter case it selects an instrument to be played from the General MIDI set, for example. Yet again, remember these bits only define the message type the the picture of dorian grey data defining the stop to be used follows in successive bytes. Control Change is also important as it selects one of many MIDI Controllers. For our purposes we are only interested in one of these, the Bank Select controller. MIDI Banks will also be described later.

Data Bytes 1 and 2. The information carried by the two data bytes depends on which type of message is being transmitted, as follows: Note On or Note Off. For either of these messages bits 0 6 of data byte 1 hold the number of the note in of earth question, from 0 to 127 (bit 7 is always 0). Thus the MIDI system can accommodate 128 notes or about 10 octaves. 0 represents the bottom note of this range; 127 the top note. Conventionally, middle C is note number 60. Data byte 2 holds the velocity of the note when there is a Note On message, and it is ignored by the picture of dorian grey, the receiver for a Note Off. Velocity is the speed with which the key descends in the range 0 (zero loudness) to 127 (maximum loudness).

For organ work this is of no account as we do not require a keyboard with touch sensitivity, so the value here will always be a constant. Conventionally a velocity value of 63 or 64 is used when touch sensitivity is disabled. Quite frequently a commercial MIDI keyboard will send no Note Off messages at all, even when keys are released. The reasons for this apparent curiosity have some contorted logic but they will not be discussed here. When this convention is used, key release is two and a half man signalled by using a Note On message but with zero velocity [9]. When this message is sent there is usually only one following data byte rather than two, and it holds the number of the desired program. Some explanation of this term is required as it can have a number of alternative names. In virtually all MIDI implementations the program number determines which of many preset sounds are selected. Of Dorian Summary? Again the number range is from 0 to 127, enabling up to leadership to the civil 128 sounds to be called up (in fact the grey summary actual number is the lady of shalott traduzione vastly more than this if we invoke the concept of MIDI Banks as described shortly). In the the picture of dorian summary commercial music world some alternative names for program are presets, instruments, patches or voices.

There is a variety of Control Change messages covering everything from piano sustain pedals to tremolo effects. However we are only concerned here with how to a half change MIDI Banks, and these will now be explained. We saw above that up to 128 programs can be defined within a Program Change message. In the MIDI system these all occupy what is called a Bank (i.e. a bank of 128 different presettable sounds). The 128 ubiquitous sounds of General MIDI usually occupy Bank 0 in a commercial system. However up to 16384 Banks can be defined, each holding its own group of 128 presets.

For organ purposes it is useful to consider each program or preset as denoting stops or combinations of stops. In the latter case we can go further and think of a combination of stops as equivalent to a general piston or a sequencer setting. In this way we have a capability of up to 16384 x 128 generals, a total of 2,097,152 ! By transmitting Bank Select (i.e. a particular form of Control Change) followed by Program Change messages, any of these can be instantly selected by the player. In order to cater for the large number of Banks, a Bank is changed by two Control Change messages having message types 0 and 32. These transmit one data byte each, respectively containing the most significant and the least significant bytes of the new Bank number.

It is grey not recommended that you worry too much about the details of the Bank Select message structure in a MIDI system at how to reference a website, this stage. MIDI Modes bring us to an unsatisfactory, complicated and confusing subject, so it is fortunate we need to know little more beyond that it exists. The naming convention of the various modes goes back to the days of monophonic synthesisers, as some of the modes switch between monophonic and the picture summary, polyphonic operation. Domination? Moreover, half way through the history of MIDI the mode names were all changed. Of Dorian Grey Summary? Even more confusing, the original mode structure has been found inadequate to cater for todays needs, so some modes used now by most manufacturers do not form part of the leadership person was key to the north’s victory in the civil war? official MIDI specification. A good account of the picture grey, modes appears in [2] , and the bare minimum of basic facts appears below:

Modes are defined by french, the receiver, not the transmitter . They specify how the receiver will handle channel messages from the the picture summary transmitter. A very important aspect concerns channelisation a unit in mode 1 will respond to messages on any channel whereas in mode 3 it will respond only to those of a specific channel. The MIDI Pedalboard Encoder - Principle of Operation. The general principles of operation of the encoder are as follows. The 32 pedal key contacts are scanned and their states (on or off) entered into a 32 bit memory. On successive scans the current state of each contact is compared with the corresponding memory location, and if there is a difference this means that a note previously off has now been keyed, or vice versa. When such a difference is the lady of shalott traduzione detected a MIDI code is transmitted containing the address of the note in question and whether it has been switched on or off. When the transmission is complete the the picture memory location for this note is updated to voices of earth reflect the summary new status of the note, and then the leadership of which person to the victory in the civil war? key scan continues. Figure 3. The Picture Of Dorian Grey? Block diagram of the MIDI encoder. A block diagram of the system is shown in Figure 3. Before addressing the detail it is important to point out that the system must work at 5 volts.

This is reference a website apa style because of the need to use a MIDI standard output interface as shown in Figure 1. The Picture Of Dorian Summary? So if you decide to use other voltages for a half, the logic inside the the picture of dorian grey summary system you must ensure that only 5 volts appears at the output, otherwise MIDI receiving equipment could be damaged. My system used a 12 volts DC input from a conventional power supply, and leadership of which north’s in the civil war?, this was regulated down to 5 volts using a 7805 voltage regulator. First let us assume that no keys are pressed. The Picture Grey Summary? Under these conditions the clock generator supplies pulses at 3.9 kHz through the clk inhibit box to the keyboard scanner address generator (thus the clock is not in fact inhibited at this stage this occurs later). This repeatedly generates a cycle of addresses from 0 to traduzione 31 on a 5 bit bus, and these are supplied to of dorian grey summary the key contact scanner. This distributes pulses in sequence to the 32 pedal contacts.

A scan frequency of apa style, 3.9 kHz means that the the picture 32 keys are scanned about 122 times per second, which is fast enough for the pedals. The same address lines are also connected to an SRAM memory chip. This can be almost any SRAM, as only 32 bits of storage are in a half man fact required! I used a 6116 2K by 8 chip as it happened to be to hand, though it is now (2009) obsolete. However it can still be obtained from the picture of dorian, various sources, and several equivalents are obtainable [11]. Of Earth? Under the idling conditions we are assuming for the present, all 32 locations of the memory will be at logic 0 because there are no notes keyed (the manner in which this came about will become clear later). For each address, the status comparator compares the the picture of dorian summary input from the key contact array on line B and the output from the memory on line A. As long as these are the same (which they are while no note is keyed), the to the north’s in the civil war? output line X (normally high) does not change state. This is true whether A and B are both high or both low. Only when a difference exists does the output line change state. Now consider what happens when a note is the picture grey summary keyed. When the scan address reaches that note, a logic 1 will appear at line B whereas line A from the memory will still be a 0. This galvanises the status comparator into action, and it causes X to change state from high to low.

Simultaneously Z goes high, indicating a new Note On has been detected. The hi-lo transition on X inhibits the how to reference a website scan address generator clock line, thus the keyboard scan stops for the present, and simultaneously the MIDI Code Generator clock is enabled. The code generator is thus supplied with pulses at the picture of dorian grey summary, the standard MIDI rate of 31.25 kHz, and it transmits a standard 3 byte channel message to the outside world. This message contains a bit stream indicating which note has just been keyed, together with a channel number defined by chan select . The note address on lines A0 A4 is added to a base address supplied from base addr select . Also a constant value of velocity (typically 63) can be defined by velocity select . These three values (base address, channel and velocity) are set on DIP switches. When the MIDI transmission is complete a pulse appears on the lady traduzione, the Tx compl line. This is supplied to the memory write circuit which is also aware (via the high on of dorian, B) that a Note On state has just been detected. Thus it writes a 1 into the memory address for this note, replacing the previous value of 0. As soon as this happens line A goes high (because the memory output is now high), and this means that the french two lines A and B are both high. (Until the contents of the memory was refreshed, A was low and B was high). The status comparator therefore detects that both lines are in the same state, so X returns to its high level.

This re-starts the scan clock, and the keyboard scan commences again. Now consider what happens when the note is released. As before, the status comparator will detect this and grey summary, X goes low. This time however, the polarities of lines A and B are the opposite of the previous case: A is high because of the earlier memory write operation, but B has gone low because the note has been released. This causes Z to remain low even though X changes state, a property of the logic in the comparator.

A MIDI transmission is initiated exactly as before, but because of Z now being low a Note Off message is transmitted. Reference? All other bits in the message remain the same as previously. At the summary completion of the voices message the memory write circuit is activated via Tx compl but this time a 0 is summary written, replacing the existing 1. A Website? This occurs because the circuit writes to the memory whatever level exists on line B. Following the write, lines A and B are now the the picture of dorian same (low in both cases) so X goes high again and the keyboard scan re-commences. It should now be clear how the french memory contents is first written when the circuit is switched on. At this instant the memory will in general contain some random bit pattern.

The completion of the first key scan after power-up then results in the memory reflecting the state of the of dorian summary key contacts at voices of earth, that time (normally it would be all notes off, but the the picture grey actual state is irrelevant). Apa Style? During this initial scan there will therefore be some meaningless MIDI codes transmitted as the correct memory contents is established, but a time delay circuit in the picture of dorian grey summary series with the output prevents them reaching the outside world. The circuit of the encoder appears in Figures 4 and 5. Domination? Apologies are tendered for the picture of dorian grey summary, the confusing orientation of Figure 5, but it was the only way it could be incorporated here while retaining legibility. The circuit uses 16 standard CMOS circuits together with an a website SRAM chip. Figure 5 is a full topological diagram with connections to all pins of all chips shown. However in Figure 4 some pins have been omitted otherwise it would have been difficult to see the wood for the trees. This is particularly true for the memory chip, most of whose pins are grounded. The Picture Grey? However such details are completed later in this narrative.

Nor are the power rails shown in Figure 4 for similar reasons, but it is important to note that the 4049 hex inverter chip does not use the standard pin for its V dd connection! Figure 4. MIDI Encoder circuit (1) - above. Figure 5. MIDI Encoder circuit (2) - above. System Clock (Figure 5) The clock uses the convenient 4060 chip which is french a combined oscillator and of dorian, divider. It is french imperative that a crystal controlled clock is used to ensure that the MIDI receiver (which works asynchronously with respect to the transmitter) has a high probability of synchronising itself within one half of a clock period to an incoming transmission.

RC oscillators would be useless, and even ceramic resonators would be of the picture grey summary, doubtful reliability. The 4 MHz crystal used in the prototype was obtained from two and a half, Maplin Electronics (order code FY82). The component values in the circuit have to be chosen to suit the oscillator frequency, the make of chip and crystal and (most importantly) the supply voltage. Choosing them is the picture of dorian summary straightforward provided you have the manufacturers data sheet, although the values shown should usually be satisfactory for operation at the lady of shalott, 5 volts. The clock generates two frequencies: one at grey summary, 3.9 kHz is used to drive the the lady of shalott traduzione keyboard scanner.

The other at 31.25 kHz drives the MIDI code generator. Keyboard Scanner (Figure 4) The scanner is of dorian grey driven at 3.9 kHz by an address generator using a 4024 which counts continuously (until interrupted by a change of domination, key state) from 0 to 31 and of dorian summary, then resets itself. This arrangement accommodates up to 32 pedal notes. There are two 4024s in the complete encoder circuit (the other is in Figure 5) so this one is denoted as 4024(b). The 5 bit address from the or Stanley Kowalski? Essay 4024 is used to scan the the picture grey key contacts, to address the contents of the SRAM, and to provide an (inverted) note address to the MIDI code generator.

To scan the key contacts the traduzione address generator drives two 4514 chips acting as a 5 to 32 line decoder. Thus each key contact is directly addressed rather than via a matrix; this was used for simplicity though some economies could be obtained using conventional matrix addressing [5]. The scanner repetitively circulates around the the picture grey 32 contacts until it is interrupted by the discovery of how to reference a website apa style, a change of the picture of dorian summary, key state as described earlier. Leadership Of Which North’s Civil? Each 5 bit address from the address generator identifies a particular contact, address 0 corresponding to bottom C on of dorian, the pedal board and 31 to a half man top G. Chip 4514(a) addresses notes 0 to the picture grey summary 15 and 4514(b) notes 16 to 31. The connections to the two decoder chips are in the tables below: Keyboard Scanner Connections for 4514(a)

MIDI Note Address. Keyboard Scanner Connections for 4514(b) MIDI Note Address. The MIDI note address is inverted by Kowalski or Stanley, the 4049 hex inverter because MIDI requires negative logic data. The result is then supplied to the picture of dorian summary the MIDI code generator in Figure 5. The actual note address output to external equipment can optionally have a base (offset) address added to it as described later. Status Comparator (Figure 4) For each note during the scan the status comparator compares the current state of the key contact (on or off) with that on the previous scan. The data for the previous scan are held in the 32 bit SRAM. The current state appears on input line B and leadership victory in the civil, the previous state on line A. Depending on the logic levels on the picture of dorian grey, these lines the comparator generates two outputs X and Z. X is a negative-logic output denoting by going low that a change of status has been detected (it does not matter whether a note has just been switched on or switched off), and Z indicates by going high when the Is it Homer Kowalski Kowalski? change of state is a Note On. (Z is then inverted by summary, a 4049 section to suit the negative logic convention of MIDI). The 51k/330pF network in series with the X output is to introduce a small timing delay (time constant = 15 m sec) to prevent races occurring when the memory contents is updated subsequently see later.

The circuit uses a number of logic gates to implement the truth table below; any other combinatorial logic network should suffice provided the of earth essay same logic functions are implemented. Summary? Note that a diode OR gate at the input and french, a diode AND gate at the Z output were used to avoid having to of dorian grey summary include further CMOS packages. Status Comparator Truth Table. No status change note still Off. No status change note still On. Status change Note On detected. Status change Note Off detected. Scan Clock Inhibit (Figure 4)

The X output from the status comparator feeds a clock inhibit circuit which interrupts the traduzione keyboard scan whenever a change of state is detected. It consists simply of the AND gate N3. MIDI Code Generator Clock Enable (Figure 5) The X output from the the picture grey status comparator also feeds a 4098 monostable which generates a 5 m sec pulse when X goes lo. In turn this enables the MIDI clock at 31.25 kHz to commence incrementing the MIDI Address Generator.

MIDI Address Generator (Figure 5) This uses a second 4024 chip to generate 32 addresses from 0 to 31 at french, a rate of 31.25 kHz on the picture of dorian, receipt of the the lady of shalott traduzione 5 m sec pulse from the of dorian grey summary monostable. These are used to access in sequence the various bits making up the MIDI message which is thereby transmitted as a serial bit stream. The message itself only requires 30 bits whereas 32 are transmitted, thus two are dummy bits at the start and the end of the message. MIDI Code Generator (Figure 5) At first sight the obvious choice for of shalott, the code generator would have been a UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter) chip such as the 6402, but in this application it was inappropriate. This was mainly because of the need to transmit three successive bytes, whereas the 6402 can only be set up to transmit one byte at a time. Although this would not have been much of the picture of dorian grey, a problem with a microprocessor controlled system it would have caused some headaches with this purely hard wired implementation.

Consequently the code is generated using a series of four 4051 chips arranged as a 32 bit multiplexer (i.e. a 32 bit parallel to of shalott serial converter). These are cheap and versatile devices which can be used to multiplex or demultiplex both digital and analogue signals. In Figure 5 the four chips are designated 4051(1) 4051(4). A fifth 4051 is also used in conjunction with the 4024(a) as part of the addressing arrangement. The fifth 4051 is of dorian called the the lady of shalott chip selector because it selects which of the other 4051s is used for a given bit address, and it is at the top right of the the picture of dorian summary diagram. Each 4051 can handle 8 bits, therefore the use of four means that there will be 32 bits in the transmitted message whereas only 30 are in fact required. Thus two of the bits are dummies, but their presence is beneficial because a short gap between successive transmissions can be helpful to a MIDI receiver. In effect the 32 clock pulses from the MIDI Address Generator sequentially transmit the successive bits in the message at the MIDI bit rate of 31.25 kHz.

Each bit is defined by a high or low level at a specific pin on person was key north’s in the war?, one of the 4051s, so that by supplying the correct pattern of highs and of dorian summary, lows to these pins the desired message will be sent. The serial bit stream appears at the lady, the common output of each chip (pin 3), and of dorian grey summary, these are wired to the BC109 output transistor which switches the current for each bit on or off as required. In the diagram the lines for each data byte have been brought together in how to a website the correct order for ease of the picture of dorian grey, comprehension. For example, the bar surrounding the 8 wires for byte 1 (the Status Byte) shows the leadership of which person was key north’s 8 bits for that byte, with the least significant bit to summary the left. This is the Is it Homer Kowalski? Essay order in summary which they are transmitted and it corresponds to the bit ordering in Figure 2 . The start and domination, stop bits for each byte are not included in the corresponding groups. The chip number and the picture of dorian grey, pin number for each data bit in the message are shown in of shalott the table below: Relation of of dorian grey summary, Data Bytes to 4051 Pins. The chip number and pin number for each start, stop and dummy bit in the message are shown in the table below:

Relation of Homer, Start, Stop and Dummy bits to 4051 pins. Start Bits (Note 1) 1. The start bits are set to the high current state (MIDI logic 0), i.e. the potential applied to these pins is 5 volts. 2. The Picture Of Dorian Grey Summary? The stop and voices of earth essay, dummy bits are set to the low current state (MIDI logic 1), i.e. the potential applied to these pins is zero. 3. The idling condition (start of message and the picture of dorian, end of message) of the circuit is in the low current state, both of leadership person was key to the civil, which correspond to a dummy bit. Switch-selectable Options (Figure 5) As shown in Figure 3 there are three selectable options, which determine the base address of the note range, the channel on which the message is transmitted, and the notional velocity of a transmitted note. In the prototype all these were selected using a total of 6 DIP switches and these are shown in Figure 5. Further details are as follows: Transmit Channel (1-16) is set by the four switches controlling the state of bits 0-3 of byte 1. The switches close to send a logic 1, therefore all switches closed will transmit on channel 16 and all open will transmit on channel1. Note the naming convention for MIDI channels : they are usually referred to as channels 1 - 16 whereas they are actually transmitted as the binary numbers 0 - 15.

Base Address is set by grey, a single switch controlling bits 5 and 6 of byte 2. If the switch is person was key to the victory civil open the base address is the picture of dorian grey zero (then the note range of the pedals is 031); with the switch closed it is 96 (then the note range becomes 96-127). The latter setting is how to sometimes useful if the pedals need to occupy the top of the MIDI note range rather than the bottom. Velocity is selected by summary, a further switch which assigns a velocity value to the note of either 63 or 127. If the domination switch is open the value is the picture 63; if closed it is leadership of which person to the north’s victory civil war? 127. The 63 setting is recommended, partly because this is often used by other MIDI equipment in which touch sensitivity has been disabled, and of dorian grey summary, partly because too high a setting of of which person to the north’s victory in the war?, velocity can cause distortion in other equipment. This because the the picture of dorian grey number contained in the velocity byte determines the volume of the Kowalski? note which emanates from the the picture grey summary loudspeaker. MIDI Output Circuit (Figure 5) The output circuit conforms to of which person was key to the north’s victory in the civil war? standard MIDI conventions as described earlier. The Picture Of Dorian Summary? It is particularly important to ensure that the person victory in the war? polarities of the voltages applied to the pins of the DIN socket are correct so that the receiving equipment will work properly. The Picture? A time delay circuit consisting of gate N2 and its associated components ensures that spurious MIDI codes are not transmitted for a short time following switch-on while the contents of the SRAM is set to man the note status existing at that time.

The static random access memory can be virtually any SRAM chip [11]. Only 32 bits of storage are required so any chip obtainable today will be wildly under-used. Because most memory addresses are not used there are many unused pins not shown in Figure 4, and the picture summary, the actual pin connections for the 6116 chip used in the prototype were as follows: 6116 SRAM Connections. The 30k resistors are not critical and any reasonable value can be used. Memory Write Circuit (Figure 4)

Whenever a MIDI transmission is initiated it means that a change of how to reference apa style, note status was detected. Therefore it follows that the memory contents at that address must be updated to reflect the new note status. This is done after each transmission. On completion of the transmission pin 4 of 4024(a) goes high, and this triggers the monostable in the Memory Write Circuit which outputs a 5 m sec pulse. Grey? This is Is it Homer Essay gated with the current note status on line B, which is then written into memory because the pulse also activates the write enable (WE) pin of the SRAM. Thus if the note is now on, a high is written to grey summary replace the of earth essay previous low, and vice versa. Once this has been done, line X at the output of the status comparator reverts to the picture summary a high state, enabling the key contact scan sequence to domination resume. The Picture Of Dorian Grey? However this cannot happen too quickly following the memory update otherwise a race situation occurs within the system.

The RC delay network in series with the X output prevents this happening. The encoder was built on a single strip board about 300 mm long by 100 mm wide (e.g. Is It Homer Kowalski? Maplin Electronics order code JP51F), which was a convenient size as it fitted directly behind the grey contact assembly on the pedalboard. Some of the of earth wiring was done by hand in order to the picture of dorian fit all the chips onto domination, the one board. Connections to the key contacts used a pair of 16 pin DIL sockets with mating IDC headers (e.g. Maplin Electronics code JH36P).

These enabled two 16 way ribbon cables from the contacts to be connected rapidly to the picture of dorian the unit. Some care has to be exercised in the choice of key contact materials in view of the low voltage (5 volts) at which they operate. Silver wire is unsatisfactory at this voltage and gold clad wire is domination french virtually mandatory. Reed switches are reliable once they have been set up properly, although this can be a tedious operation. A simple way to fit ordinary wire contact blocks and wipers to of dorian grey summary a pedalboard is to attach the reference a website contacts to a curved rail underneath the pedals, mounted at a point where the movement of the keys is about the same as that of manual keys. This avoids having to use expensive pedal jacks at the front of the keys.

A suitable contact block comprising a pair of gold wires is available from Kimber Allen Ltd (order code GJ). Of Dorian Summary? With care it is quite feasible to make up one's own contacts using gold clad wire, which is also available by traduzione, the metre from Kimber Allen (order code GS109/02). However, if this is the picture grey summary attempted, care must be taken to of shalott traduzione prevent movement of the wires being transmitted to the soldered joints. If this occurs the joints will fail rapidly through fatigue. The Picture Summary? The commercial contact assemblies specified are constructed in such a manner as to obviate this problem. Usually, digital devices either work perfectly or not at all, so if the circuit has been assembled correctly it should function immediately.

However this is two and man of little consolation to those who encounter problems, and in these cases an essential pre-requisite is some means of examining what (if anything) emerges from the output socket. An oscilloscope can be useful, though it will be impossible to display an individual fleeting MIDI signal without a storage facility. A logic analyser is more useful, as this will establish what is going on within the system at any desired points. Unfortunately these are luxuries not widely available outside development laboratories. The Philip Rees Little 2M merge unit (described below) can be extremely helpful in this situation, because it has an LED which occults when a signal is of dorian grey received. More than this, the LED only Is it Kowalski Kowalski?, flashes when the signal is a valid MIDI code. When I had completed the prototype it did not work at first, and I restricted myself deliberately to fault-finding using only an of dorian grey summary oscilloscope and the merge unit.

I arranged for a simple external test circuit to open and close one of the key contacts repetitively at a rate of several hundred pulses per second, and monitored the the lady output with the 'scope. With this repetitive signal it was then easy to the picture summary trigger the 'scope and display a useable output trace. This revealed that although signals were being generated, they were not MIDI signals. Inspection of the reference a website apa style board with a magnifying glass under a bright light revealed that there was a solitary dry joint which resulted in incorrect codes being transmitted, and when this was rectified the grey unit worked perfectly. Yet another example, should one be needed, of the importance of careful soldering! If intermittent problems are encountered try increasing the value of the 330 pF capacitor in the Status Comparator.

It can be approximately doubled (to 680 pF) or trebled (to 1000 pF/1 nF), to correspondingly increase the minimum delay between successive MIDI signals. I encountered a case in which a computer sound card did not like MIDI signals tumbling in too rapidly, and implementing this change solved the problem. The problem only occurred when two adjacent pedal notes were keyed (usually accidentally of course!). It is two and a half interesting that this was not a problem of the MIDI encoder itself but of the the picture receiver to which it was connected. Such compatibility problems are all too common with MIDI equipment, unfortunately. Using the MIDI pedalboard. We now look at Homer or Stanley Essay, some ways in the picture of dorian grey summary which the MIDI outputs from this pedalboard can be used. The emphasis is on the lady of shalott, facilitating the assembly of a range of simple and inexpensive instruments for organ practice, perhaps at home, school or college. Once you have a MIDI-capable pedalboard, it is quite possible to put together a two manual and pedal practice console for no more than a few hundred pounds. Often it will be much less than this.

Obviously, we need one or more manual keyboards to complement the pedals, and here we are spoilt for choice. There is an enormous range of electronic keyboards available commercially, and the biggest problem is to select with care from the bewildering array on offer. The first point to grey realise is that commercial keyboards fall into the lady of shalott two main groups: those which are capable of making sounds on the picture of dorian summary, their own, and those which are not. The latter have to Kowalski or Stanley Kowalski? Essay be connected to other equipment before sounds can be heard, and the most common choice is the ubiquitous personal computer. Most keyboards of this type will work either with IBM or Mac PC's, and they come with the necessary software on a CD-ROM.

Some examples of the the picture of dorian other type of keyboard can also work in this mode, because their inbuilt sounds can be switched off. My preference is for the type of essay, keyboard which makes no sounds of its own, provided you have a suitable PC to which the keyboard can be connected. Such a keyboard is the picture of dorian summary marketed by voices of earth essay, Evolution as their MK-261 or MK-361 offerings (see www.evolution.co.uk ). These are five octave keyboards, which are of the picture of dorian grey, course essential for organ practice. If you decide to go for the other type of keyboard having built-in sounds, be sure to obtain one which has a MIDI In socket to which the pedalboard can be connected. The simplest configuration on which one can play a wide range of organ music has one five-octave manual and pedals. With the type of Homer Kowalski or Stanley, keyboard having built-in sounds you merely connect the output from the MIDI pedalboard encoder to its MIDI In socket, and you have an instant digital organ. Of course, life is seldom quite so simple and in this case there are two issues which deserve a mention. The first is that of voices, or perhaps we should call them stops as we are discussing organs. With this type of minimal organ there are no physical stops of the picture summary, course, and not much choice in the type of sounds available either. Usually you will have to domination select the most suitable sounds from the 128 General MIDI instruments which your keyboard will undoubtedly boast.

Actually this is not so restrictive as it might appear, because there is invariably a choice of five piano sounds if you discount the honky-tonk variety, and the picture grey summary, the Grand Piano is usually an acceptable simulation of the real thing on modern keyboards. Homer? There is the picture grey also a harpsichord (also generally attractive), a church organ and a reed organ. If you use your keyboard with a PC it will be indicated later how the range of reference a website apa style, sounds can be extended at will. Unless you deliberately decide not to summary do so, you also need to disable the touch sensitivity of the a half manual keys (the keyboard handbook should show how), although it can sometimes be a salutary experience to assess your articulation, phrasing and evenness of touch by of dorian grey, occasionally playing an Is it or Stanley Essay organ whose keys are touch sensitive. Another problem arises because of the MIDI note range of the pedalboard encoder described here. It can only be set to operate either from MIDI note zero or MIDI note 96. Grey? However a more desirable base note number would be 24, representing 16 foot C. This would play the voice you select an octave lower than that of the the lady manual keyboard. Unfortunately it is not easy to obtain this base address using the grey summary design described above (although it could be done), and this reflects the inflexibility of a hardware rather than a software-based method of generating the MIDI messages.

If you opt for the PC route it is relatively easy to overcome this difficulty. However the keyboard you are using might have a MIDI Transpose facility which can be set to operate only on the incoming messages from the two and man MIDI In socket. In this case, set the pedal encoder to operate from a base address of zero and then select an upwards shift of two octaves from the transposer. Another solution would be to obtain an external unit which can do the transposition; these often perform a range of other functions as well. The unit would be connected in the lead running from the output of the pedalboard encoder to the picture of dorian the MIDI In socket of the keyboard. Adding a second manual to this organ consists merely of adding a second manual keyboard. It requires no connections to voices of earth the other keyboard or the pedals in the simplest configuration, although this would mean that no intermanual coupling would be possible.

With so limited a range of voices however, this will usually be of little account. When using a PC to generate the sounds, they actually arise from the sound card or the onboard sound chip in the computer - the software provided on the CD-ROM accompanying the keyboard is able to detect automatically the type of grey summary, sound hardware available, and it configures itself accordingly. Thereafter you will be able to access at least the General MIDI set of voices, plus others as well in how to a website apa style most cases. We shall touch on of dorian, this later. For the present a few words are necessary on how to connect two manuals and french, the pedals to the single MIDI In socket of your computer (which in of dorian summary many cases will be the game port connector). You cannot, and must not, merely connect all the corresponding wires together. This will not work because MIDI signals are digital, not analogue, and the lady, combining them requires advanced digital signal handling techniques. Moreover, damage could result to the MIDI equipment if you tried to the picture grey proceed in reference apa style this way. Grey Summary? Fortunately it is possible to obtain MIDI merge units which contain microprocessors to implement the necessary clever combining functions. How To Apa Style? An inexpensive and of dorian grey summary, extremely effective unit is the essay Little 2M by Philip Rees, which has the decided advantage of requiring no power supply because it derives its miniscule power requirement from the MIDI system it is connected to [10].

Two such units are required to merge the signals from two manuals and the picture of dorian summary, pedals, as sketched below in Figure 6. If only one manual keyboard is required then only one merge unit is necessary. Figure 6. Achieving a 3-way MIDI merge. With the PC method we still need to voices of earth consider ways to handle the the picture of dorian MIDI note range of the pedals. In this case it might be convenient to set the pedalboard encoder to transmit from two and a half, a base note address of 96 rather than zero, as it will then not overlap the manual key range except for the top note. Your keyboard software might offer the facility to apply a 6-octave downwards transposition to notes in the range 96 to 127, thereby bringing the pedals into the correct 16 foot pitch range (i.e. The Picture? starting at MIDI note 24). Or you could use the note range 0 to 31 for the pedals and insert a transposer unit in the lead from the pedalboard encoder to the MIDI merge unit. As before, the transposer would be set to a half man transpose upwards by two octaves. Yet another suggestion is to obtain MidiOx software (available at www.midiox.com) which can apply several useful operations to MIDI signals. Although I have not verified it myself, I am informed that the grey summary necessary transposition can be implemented in this way. Perhaps the leadership victory in the civil war? most useful facility offered by the PC method of sound production is that of extending the range of the picture summary, sounds available. There are several ways to do this but the simplest and most widely used is to employ the SoundFont capability of modern sound cards.

As this was an innovation invented by Creative Technology, it is not surprising that your own SoundFonts can be imported into their range of Is it or Stanley Kowalski? Essay, sound cards, although those from other manufacturers are usually SoundFont-compatible today. At the time of writing the Creative Labs Audigy 2 card is the one to go for; it comes in several variants of which the cheapest retails for well under 100. Grey Summary? ( The more expensive options offer more convenience to the user, such as a smart front control panel, rather than additional functionality as such). SoundFonts cannot be discussed in detail here as it would take us well beyond the subject matter of this article. However it is essay certainly one way to go if you want your organ to have many authentic voices rather than being limited to the range of sounds in summary commercial MIDI Banks such as General MIDI. Using this technique, you will also be able to add a range of independent pedal stops which will work immediately with either of the MIDI note ranges of the encoder described here. The image below shows an how to absolutely minimalist two manual and pedal home practice instrument assembled as described in the foregoing. The keyboards were Evolution MK-261's and the good-quality pedalboard was rescued from an old European electronic organ before it ended its days in a skip. It was of of dorian, standard dimensions and of 30 notes compass. It was also flat rather than concave, offering the opportunity to practice more easily the detach toes-only technique preferred today by the lady, many students and the picture of dorian grey, teachers. The MIDI encoder described herein was attached to the rear of the pedalboard contact assembly. A number of people have assembled instruments along these lines with various console elaborations, and they fit in quite well in churches using a more informal style of Homer or Stanley Essay, worship.

More to the point, simple home practice facilities of this type can cost around one twentieth or so of the price of even the the picture of dorian summary cheapest commercial digital organs, and of course they do not involve the installation of a large console in a domestic setting. Reference? For those who for one reason or another are unable to practice often on the picture of dorian grey, a pipe organ, they offer a low cost and two and a half man, convenient alternative. Notes and of dorian summary, References. 1. Basic MIDI, Paul White, Sanctuary Publishing Ltd, London 1999. ISBN 1 86074 262 9. 2. A Beginners Guide to MIDI, R A Penfold, Babani Publishing Ltd, London 1993.

ISBN 0 85934 331 6. 3. Practical PIC Microcontroller Projects, R A Penfold, Babani Publishing Ltd, London 2001. ISBN 0 85934 444 4. 4. There are proprietary variants on two and a half man, the GM (General MIDI) set of instruments, marketed by manufacturers such as Roland and grey, Yamaha, and they have names such as GS, XG, etc. However the term GM tends to be used when a generic description is sufficient.

5. The reason for not using matrix addressing in the prototype was to do with practical issues such as the particular form of the key contacts on the pedal board which was used for the development work it would have required too much manual re-working of PCBs to of shalott accommodate a matrixed approach. 6. Of Dorian Grey? PIC has become a generic term widely used in Is it Homer Kowalski or Stanley Kowalski? Essay microprocessor circles although it refers strictly to the particular products of one manufacturer. The term is a trademark of Microchip Technology Inc of the picture grey, Arizona, USA and leadership was key north’s civil war?, hardly anyone seems to grey know or care whether it is an acronym, and if so, what it stands for. Two And? However this clearly does not inhibit the use of these devices in huge numbers. Of Dorian Summary? PICs are extremely cheap microprocessors having a subset of the instruction set of more cumbersome items such as the ageing and obsolescent Z80 (and for this reason they are referred to as RISC processors - Reduced Instruction Set Computers). They are beguilingly simple to use if you are an electronics or computer professional with microprocessor experience and the necessary programming and debugging facilities, but not otherwise.

Hence the justification for the hardware-only approach described in this article, for which the only mandatory skill is the french ability to solder. 7. MIDI for grey summary, Organists, C E Pykett, currently on this website. ( read ) 8. The statement in the text which says that nothing is transmitted down a MIDI link unless the note status changes is not always strictly correct. Some MIDI systems continue to transmit a special type of a website apa style, message under quiescent conditions to indicate that the physical wire link is still intact. This is called active sensing, and the special keep-alive messages are sent typically at a rate of of dorian, several per second. Person Was Key North’s In The Civil? In my experience and that of others, active sensing is sometimes more trouble than it is worth as it can cause several problems. As an example, the original version of the Audigy sound card would not respond to Program Change messages from an Evolution MK-261 keyboard which used active sensing. It was necessary to filter out the active sensing messages before the problem was solved.

Fortunately, the Little 2M MIDI merge units mentioned later in the picture grey summary the article have an in-built filter, and interposing this unit in french the lead between keyboard and computer was a simple way to remove the difficulty. Of Dorian? (The Audigy 2 card does not appear to have this problem). 9. The use of Note On messages to signal both key-up and key-down conditions is termed running status. 10. Unfortunately Philip Rees apparently discontinued their MIDI component business in May 2005 according to their website (as seen on voices of earth, 26 November 2005). The Picture Of Dorian Grey Summary? However there appear to be many Little 2M merge units still available on the Internet, including on eBay. If you can pick one or more up I strongly recommend you to do so, as they are one of Homer or Stanley, those items which you wonder how you ever lived without. Grey Summary? Other makes of merge unit are also probably still available, as the need to merge MIDI streams will probably still be with us when the universe ends. An alternative today (April 2007) is to domination french use a MIDI USB hub which performs essentially the same function. 11. Since this article appeared the 6116 SRAM chip has become difficult to find, although it turns up from time to time on eBay. The Picture Grey? A pin compatible alternative is the CY7C128A from Cypress Semiconductors, which is stocked by RS Components (stock number 632-859) as at April 2007.

However the package size is thinner than the 6116 so it is not a plug-in replacement. I cannot guarantee whether it will work in this circuit, but I have used it successfully elsewhere in other systems which originally used the 6116.