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Nov 17, 2017 Essay on Environmental Management Plans,
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Nov 17, 2017 Essay on Environmental Management Plans,
museum dissertation Institute of Archaeology. University College London. 31-34 Gordon Square. London WC1H 0PY. Joanna Mary Irene Follett. Jacqueline Marie Hunt. Fay Anna Newman. Jeremy Matthew Ottevanger.
Maria de Pascale. Charlotte Elizabeth Stone. The development of marketing plans for museums: purpose, practice and programming. This dissertation studies the development and construction of marketing plans for museums (using the London Transport Museum as a case study) and then applies the Essay Management, results to developing a marketing plan for a museum in the UAE. Chapter 1 discusses and analyses the importance of marketing for museums; defines and distinguishes between museum marketing and Queen of Castilla Essay other forms of Management marketing. Chapter 2 evaluates and analyses the LTM marketing plan in terms of marketing principles. The LTM plan (which runs to 8 pages attached with supporting information) provides a general guide and outline to marketing principles and The Successful identifies the main areas needed to compile a marketing plan for museums in Management, general.
Chapter 3 examines the methodology for constructing a marketing plan for the Ajman Museum (UAE) using the LTM marketing plan and other data as a reference point. In the conclusion both the marketing plans were compared. It is clear that the general principles were transferable; however, some aspects differ between them such as the mission, objectives, target audience and capacity of essay courtesy market place. I hope this dissertation will contribute something to the museum field in my country (United Arab Emirates). To glorify or empathize? The interpretation of war in Essay Management, military museums.
Military museums are beginning to essay courtesy respond to recent changes in the presentation of history in museum. They are increasingly highlighting the social relevance of their collections. Plans! This change illustrates a recognition of the importance history has in the lives of people today. Not only as a way of understanding where they come from, but also in locating themselves and their communities in the present and the future. It gives rise to very important and interesting questions about a controversial aspect of Essay on An Inside Conflict our past, that is the effect violence and warfare have had on individuals and communities. The two World Wars in this century have had a profound effect on western culture and national identities, and this dissertation proposes to investigate the way in which the experiences of war are interpreted in military museums. The effectiveness of museum displays in Essay on Environmental Management Plans, relating the history of the First World War will be contrast to other sites of remembrance, for example, war memorials and the cemeteries of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. An assessment of other forms of popular culture, such as historical novels dealing with this period, will also be compared to sequences math museum displays and a comparison will be made between the approach and design techniques used in the Imperial War Museum and Essay on Environmental Plans the new in Family Medicine Essay, Flanders Field Museum. In conclusion, it is hoped that some solutions to the problems faced by military museums in Management Plans, interpreting the controversial aspects of their collection can be found. Comparative analysis of the Korean Galleries in the British Museum and The Successful the Victoria and Albert Museum. Since the on Environmental, late 19th century, Korean objects being purchased or given by various individual collectors have come into the British Museum (BM) and the Victoria Albert Museum (VA).
The first gallery opened in 1992 at VA but followed, with much improved atmosphere and presentation, 5 years later by Essay, the Korean Galley at BM. Essay On Environmental Management Plans! Both are supported by the same private company, Samsung, one of the largest companies in essay courtesy, Korea, which intends to build up its image as a patron of Korean culture. The two galleries have different policies, management and displays: VA illustrates Korean architecture with decorative interior artworks and with interactive exhibits. It also made serious attempts to show female culture and contemporary art. The BM, being the second gallery, has better lighting, atmosphere and clearer labelling, with mention on the ancient history and Buddhist art. Essay On Environmental Management Plans! Neither museum has a long-term Korean education programme, although the VA has its yearly course in autumn. The museums do have vague relationship with the local Korean community. Also, the Korean government assists to promote Koran culture and tourism as well.
The Korean galleries can be good models to influence Korean exhibitions in other museums in the future. The site museum: A means of presenting, revealing or reconstructing the past? The most recent work to be undertaken concerning historic and/or archaeological site interpretation has focused upon the growing trends towards live interpretation, audio, visual and audio-visual aids, building reconstructions and internet sites. Essay Courtesy! The rise of on Environmental Management Plans such multi-media projects has shifted the focus of site interpretation away form the traditional site museum. This study proposes to establish what role the site museum plays in a site visit and whether the term 'museum' is entirely appropriate for buildings that so often contain shops and restaurants alongside exhibition areas that lack the back up of sequences math traditional museum collections and curatorial staff.
The study also examines those 'new' medias that have been adopted to replace or complement the site museum in order to identify the most effective ways in which British archaeological sites (and especially British Prehistoric sites) can be presented to the public. I will argue that some of these 'new' medias, in attempting to reveal the past, consciously or subconsciously recreate the past in a form that will be more appealing to a non academic audience and in doing so draw interpretations that cannot be found in the archaeological data. The comparison of the site museum and alternative medias intends to illustrate the stability of the museum in archaeological site interpretation by reflecting on its ability to reveal as opposed to reconstruct the past even though its very nature poses certain restrictions on Essay on Environmental Management Plans, site interpretation. These issues are dealt with through the examination of giffen good existing projects in Britain and America and through the closer examination of a proposed innovative project for Catalhoyuk Turkey. What becomes apparent from these studies is that whilst current British projects concentrate on a physical site visit the proposed project for Catalhoyuk concentrates on an off site visit making the site available to a wider audience. On-site provisions are seen as important for those who are able to visit the 'real' site of Catalhoyuk but on their own they are seen as limiting the opportunity to disseminate the knowledge acquired through the Essay, research project. On-site interpretation at Catalhoyuk is to be provided primarily by a site museum, thus expressing the dominance of the museum in the on-site interpretation of prehistoric, multi-period sites. Trying to of Castilla Essay communicate: A comparison of access and communication strategies in four new galleries at the Science Museum and the V A.
Ideally, museums are venues which offer a service accessible for all. Providing exhibition environments which allow access for the widest possible audience and facilitate good communication has become the key to on Environmental Management the museum's future. This paper compares and contrasts four new permanent exhibitions at the Science Museum and the VA. It investigates how a major science and art museum reflect the aim to provide their visitors with worthwhile display experiences. While a broad range of aspects relevant to facilitating exhibition access and communication are investigated, particular attention has been paid to innovative communication media and how these contribute to the creation of interesting exhibitions.
The central finding of this study is that the approaches of both museums towards exhibition access and communication are in many ways comparable, and that the access and communication methods previously associated with science museums have been adopted successfully for decorative art displays. However, while demonstrating many novel communication media and methods, all four galleries feature surprisingly similar shortcomings also. The second part of this paper will investigate these, arguing that in the process of sequences math providing access and communication through revised and new media, some basic (yet crucial) good access and communication strategies have been neglected. The impact of corporate sponsorship on exhibitions: The British Museum. Why do many museums attract corporate sponsors to Management Plans support their exhibitions?
What impact does it have on the exhibition topic, content, format and The Successful programme? What is there in the nature and the elements of exhibitions that make them an interesting 'investment' for companies? What do sponsors expect from their association with a museum? Is there a threat of censorship or influence on the exhibitions raison d'?tre accompanying such external funding? Does it create tension within the museum and changes in its structure and nature? Applying these questions more specifically to the case of the British Museum helps in understanding the position of museums on Essay on Environmental Plans, corporate sponsorship. This relatively new and increasingly widely used funding source seems to Medicine Essay be welcomed by both museum curators and administrators and seems to have a popularising impact on exhibitions. Essay On Environmental Management! It has apparently strengthened the shift in mission of museums toward a stronger educative role. This may well sometimes lead to a situation of self-censorship, even 'commodification' of culture.
Concurrently, the sequences math, structure of the on Environmental, institution has given a greater role to non museum specialists and on An Inside Look and Its Conflict is becoming more and more professionalised, often to the detriment of the traditional importance of curators and scholarship. The pre-eminence of the on Environmental Plans, British Museum however makes it less subject to this trend while it helps it to become more attuned to its audience and the changing society. The museum in the context of empire and its legacy upon post-colonial society in Britain. This paper examines the Essay on An Inside Look and Its Conflict, relations of power attached to the imperial ideology and how these relations have been inherited by museums in Britain, with particular reference to national museums in London, despite efforts to represent multiculturalism. An examination of the Imperial Institute, a national designed to function as the model museum of the British Empire, provides an insight into the ideologies of race, knowledge and military power which dominated the interpretation and representation of other cultures within its exhibition galleries. The shift in its emphasis of these ideologies, through representation and interpretation, is also discussed in relation to the demise of the Empire and how approaches to the Other changed only Essay Management, slightly. The paper also discusses how these Eurocentric ideologies still persist in some national museums in essay courtesy, London today.
The length of this paper does not accommodate a full discussion on the implications of the imperial legacy upon the museum in Essay on Environmental Management, British society, and only a few examples have been selected to illustrate that the museum needs to re-evaluate its role as a museum in the postcolonial context. The paper concludes that an sequences math, absence of an Essay on Environmental Management, examination of the impact of the imperial legacy upon Queen of Castilla Essay museums will continue to thwart the goals of museums which wish to address the multicultural identity of Britain. Struggling to survive? An investigation into the pressures faced by Essay on Environmental Plans, small independent museums using case studies of on An Conflict East Grinstead Town Museum and Steyning Museum. Joanna Mary Irene Follett.
This is a study based on on Environmental, small independent museums in West Sussex (those with under 10,000 visitors a year, have only a few or no paid staff, and charge either a nominal admission fee or are free). Case studies of East Grinstead Town Museum and Steyning Museum have been carried out to give an sequences math, insight into the way small independents cope with daily pressures of inadequate funding, resources, facilities and manpower. Using evidence drawn from interviewing the curators of these museums and by spending an observation day at them, independents are put into the context in which they work. More than any other sector of Essay museums, the The Successful Essay, small independents demonstrate remarkable self reliance and revenue earning drawing upon the skills and Management willingness of small amounts of paid staff or volunteers. However, commentators have realised that the future of these museums is tenuous and requires radical reappraisal if they are to survive. The solution is not straightforward, possibly requiring amalgamation of staff, or even the The Successful Development Essay, museums themselves, in an effort to avoid closure. The case studies demonstrate that survival is Essay Management Plans, feasible, revealing successes and failures and exhibiting the great potential and energy that these museums have. With kind permission of the Burrell Collection: The inquiry and its outcome.
No abstract available. Heritage site assessment: Interpretation at two English Heritage sites The Down House: Home of Charles Darwin and Battle Abbey (inclusive of the Battle of on An Hastings site) No abstract available. A neorenaissance episteme for Essay on Environmental Management, the natural history specimen: Breaking the fixity of 'legitimate' valuation. This paper explores the issues involved in the construction of value of the natural history specimen in an attempt to essay courtesy break the fixity of 'legitimate' valuation. The nature of a dominant 'legitimate' value is Management, discussed and the reason for its continuing dominance within the Natural History Museum, unaffected by a changing world. Debates in Museology suggest that a more self-conscious heterogeneous valuation of natural history specimens may be possible. Medicine! In the 'Cabinet of Curiosities' of the Renaissance we find an episteme in Management Plans, which all forms of knowing artefacts were equal: mythical, aesthetic and emotional feelings of wonder and Essay curiosity were seen as equally important to the explanation of that artefact to on Environmental Plans the cabinet's audience. I am interested to know whether a neorenaissance episteme could have relevance to post-modern society. I conduct a study of the social worlds within the Natural History Museum against a background of social anthropological science studies, using the 'boundary object' theory as conceived by Star (1989) and Star Griesemer (1989). Through this analysis using the notion of boundary objects and through studies of material culture it emerges that the legitimate constructs of valuation are tenaciously adhered to although there are clear indications of other suppressed value constructs.
I suggest a more unifying way of valuing museum natural history collections, an incorporation of suppressed value constructs to Essay 'enchant the space.' I believe that a neorenaissance episteme would produce a more inclusive, more rewarding interpretation of natural history specimens which would give the audience more points of access into the material culture of Essay Management our collections of 'naturalia.' Minding their own business: Corporate museums. Through the study of seven corporate museums, the nature of corporate museums and their relationships with their corporate parents and sequences math the wider museum community was examined. Prospects for the expansion of the sector and its growth in popularity were also discussed. It was revealed that the main motivating factors behind the establishment of corporate museums were the public relations opportunities and Essay Management a belief in the importance of the company's heritage. A related discussion on the motivation for not establishing corporate museums concluded that the poor public image of museums was a prime deterrent. Example! The status of corporate museums within the corporate sector and the wider museum community was then examined.
Most of the museums studied received ambivalent treatment from their parent companies which, it was argued, was related to Essay Plans the nature of their formation and served to devalue their status within the corporate environment. This poor attitude towards corporate museums was also evident in dealings between corporate museums and the wider museum sector. An increase in visitor numbers and facilities suggested growth and an increase in popularity for corporate museums but it was argued that further development depended upon an improved attitude towards the sector. Making museums accessible: The dilemma of museums of essay courtesy modern art. Museums of modern art are today, like all other museums, under great pressure to Essay change. In particular, increasing competition for limited funds and demands for greater accountability have meant that such museums can no longer justify their existence principally in on An Inside and Its, terms of the care of Essay their collections and on An at Afghanistan the serving of particular interests. Essay On Environmental! Increasingly, they are being asked to demonstrate that society as a whole is benefiting from the investment it makes, and not only Queen Isabella of Castilla, those who have chosen to visit, by providing access to their collections on a multitude of levels: physical, conceptual, intellectual, and multisensory. However, such proposals have been greeted with great hostility by those who perceive an Plans, inherent contradiction with the traditional practices of museums of modern art. This paper attempts to examine such 'dilemmas,' real or otherwise, which museums of modern art currently face, and how such museums can begin to go about on An Look at Afghanistan and Its Conflict, reconciling the necessary changes with the demands of traditional practices and scholarship. Questioning if traditional interpretative methods were ever suitable at all, the Essay Plans, thesis takes a brief look at the history and current trends of museum visiting and non-visiting, as well as elements of visitor studies and learning theories, and sequences math suggests alternative policies for museums of modern art with the Essay Management Plans, aid of case studies.
It is not the aim of this paper to provide definite solutions, for there are none; however, what is attempted here is the illustration of a wide range of choices available to museums of Essay modem art in making their collections accessible to a wider public, and which will put them in the direction of becoming more responsive, and responsible, institutions. Reconstructing the past: An analysis of reconstructions and models in museums, heritage and archaeology. Jacqueline Marie Hunt. The subject of this study is the use and Essay Management critical analysis of reconstructions within museums, heritage and giffen good example archaeology. This study investigates and analyses the general context of reconstructions, then focuses in particular on the use of miniature and Essay Management scale models within the presentation of prehistory. The study reveals many concerns and problems within the general use of reconstruction media. It also demonstrates that there are issues and concerns specific to scale and miniature models. Analysis of the Essay, use of models in the context of prehistory at three museums reveals that every model has specific functions and that generalisations about reconstructions cannot be made. This study concludes that although reconstructions raise many concerns within the context of contemporary museums and archaeology, they will probably remain viable means of communication for the future. Displays of dissension: Changing attitudes to on Environmental Management Plans human remains.
Attitudes and Queen Isabella Essay approaches to human remains have varied widely throughout the history of mankind. Originally religion controlled the fate of the dead, and belief in an afterworld prompted many elaborate burial rituals. However the decline of Essay Plans religion, a growing faith in the sciences to sequences math explain the origins of man, and colonialism have led to human material being collected, investigated and displayed, regardless of Plans religion or 'cultural ownership.' Museum professionals and scientists worldwide are now realising the importance of listening to the opinions and requests of indigenous groups. Legislation has been introduced in America to protect the cultural heritage of the Native inhabitants and similar legislation has now been called for in the UK.
How far will such policies go and will repatriation endanger the presence of all remains in museums, institutes and Essay stores, depriving the on Environmental Management Plans, scientific community of the information sealed within the human bones? The treatment of human remains is a subject that will always cause contention amongst some people. Therefore, can science and public interest justify the holding of such sensitive material in the museums of the future, or will the Queen Isabella of Castilla, inclusion of remains as educational exhibits eternally be regarded as 'Displays of Dissension'? The pure and the impure: The relationship between the Self and the Other in the Victorian Museums This dissertation focuses on the relationship between the Self and the Other in the nineteenth century museum and then looks to the portrayal of the Other in Essay Management Plans, the twentieth century museum to assess whether museums have come to terms with their past objectives.
The theory that the good example, creation and the perpetuation of notions of the Other was due to the political climate at home and abroad and was particular to the Victorian era, is Plans, explored using a number of secondary sources. I have attempted to place cultural perspectives from other disciplines, anthropology, history, and post colonial studies, into the museological arena in order to present a synthesis of museology and the study of the Other, and so taking Pearce's work on the Other further. My point of origin is an essay courtesy, article from The Observer (1996), highlighting the plight of the Hottentot Venus and on Environmental Management Plans the situation involving her remains, as it stands today. I have traced the situation back to the nineteenth century to understand the reasons for essay courtesy, her ill-treatment as a representation of the Other and have then re-situated the problem in the present day by on Environmental Management, looking at giffen example the Maori exhibition at the British Museum, thereby illustrating that the past must be confronted, to move on to the future. Cultural heritage, cultural identity and restitution: A case study of the Kankaria Mosaics. The fate of the Essay on Environmental Management Plans, sixth century mosaics from the Church of the Panagia Kanakaria at Development Lythrankomi in north-eastern Cyprus presents the opportunity to examine a very particular case, which reflects many universal concerns. Though interesting from Essay Management Plans numerous perspectives, not least for the legal precedent set or the insight into the world-wide trade in antiquities, the scope of the present study will be limited. Through exploration of the forces that lie behind the successful restitution of the Kanakaria Mosaics, their significance as perceived by all parties involved provides an insight into the conflicting priorities given to cultural property.
Simultaneously, the methods by which the Autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church of Cyprus regained the mosaic fragments, ranging from private negotiation to litigation and police action can be compared to other cases, drawing interesting global parallels. Museums and 15-24-year-olds. This dissertation looks at the relationship between museums and galleries and people in the age range 15-24 years old. The study considers whether this age range is attending museums, providing evidence from the national museums as a case study. The services offered by museums are illustrated again by studies of the national museums. The needs of the age group are discussed as revealed in part through three focus groups (15-16, 19-20 and 22-24 year olds). Museums, it is revealed, are not really catering for the 15-24 year olds. The services they provide are mainly targeted at schools or the general adult visitor. This age group itself, however, appears disinterested in museums and galleries viewing them as irrelevant. Museums and galleries need to change this perception if they are to increase attendances by this age group. Problems of permanence: Cultural collecting in the twentieth century.
With contemporary society being fast changing and often considered transient in nature, the essay courtesy, question of collecting art and material culture from such a postmodern time supplies the context for this paper. Management! The investigation into this subject and essay courtesy related issues prompted enquiry into on Environmental Management themes of the nature of Essay culture, related social attributes such as value systems, semiotic analysis of object, audience relationships. Practical aspects were considered such as interpretation of the Plans, object, including notions of past, nostalgia and selection, as well as attitudes to good care and conservation of contemporary object where the intent of the artist/maker and integrity of the object is of paramount importance. Investigation and research was undertaken through discursive modes of analysis. This involved reference to the works of a number of relevant theorists and practitioners in the field including of Pearce, Baudrillard, as well as collection and interpretation of primary information through interview with a number of professionals such as Sandy Nairn at Essay on Environmental Plans the Tate Gallery, Eleanor John at The Geffrye Museum, Javier Pes from The Museum of Reading, and Robin Clark at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York. The aim of the paper is not to of Castilla Essay offer concrete solutions to Essay Plans this issue but to identify issues for consideration and highlight the problematic nature of collecting contemporary objects for use within a postmodern and post-postmodern museum context. The soldier's story: The role of military museums in interpreting ordinary soldiers' lives. Traditionally, regimental and military museums have collected a large number of 'relics' relating to prominent military figures and commissioned officers, with few objects related to the ordinary rank and field of the army. This has presented a one-sided view of the social fabric of army life and the challenge that now faces many museums is to find methods to portray and interpret the lives and experiences of those who formed the bulk of the armed services, but who left few exhibits behind.
The case studies included in this paper will deal with three museums that have risen to meet this challenge. This first case study looks at the Soldiers of Gloucestershire Museums, which explores and interprets the lives of men and women within the context of their involvement with the regiment. The second case study explores the Soldiers' Life Gallery at the Discovery Museum in Newcastle which presents a typical soldier's life from sequences math recruitment to death or retirement, in on Environmental, a series of thematic displays. The final case study examines the National Army Museum, set up to tell the story of the British Army, and highlights its attempts to Look and Its Conflict place it within the context of Britain's social history. The period room: Three approaches to the challenge of authenticity. The period room has been a common technique of Essay displaying furniture and other objects within museums for Family Medicine Essay, many years. Although there are differences in method, the recreation of period settings is not only widespread, but is also extremely popular with visitors.
The validity of period rooms as a device for interpreting the past has been questioned in the last twenty years, with curators keen to distance the museum profession from 'heritage attractions' - which often have period settings and tableaux. Today, however, attitudes are altering towards the use of Essay on Environmental period rooms as a method of communicating the past to a multicultural audience. This dissertation briefly examines the history of the period room display, and sequences math discusses the main reasons for Essay on Environmental Management, its utilisation or rejection. Three different approaches in London to the use of period rooms are explored. Sequences Math! Their methods of communication with their visitors and reasons for any recent or imminent changes in interpretation are illustrated.
Finally the place of Essay Plans authenticity and the influences and pressures affecting the decisions in creating a period room are considered. Secondary sources and interviews with representatives from each site prove that popularity with visitors need not prevent a period room from being a valid contribution to the scholarship and interpretation programme of the museum. 'Hands-on our. ' : An investigation of the Family Handling Sessions at the Horniman Museum and Gardens, London. Fay Anna Newman. The following dissertation is an investigation of the Handling Sessions at the Horniman Museum. This investigation examines the teaching style used during the sessions, how the audience responded to The Successful the teaching style and on Environmental Management the objects, and assesses their own opinions about the sessions including their level of involvement. A naturalistic observation technique was used to assess the sessions and field notes were taken (a similar session at the Museum of London was observed for comparison). A questionnaire was used to collect the opinions of the audience at the Horniman sessions (adults and children were questioned). It was found that the session were a great success and both the Horniman Museum, and sequences math the handling sessions in particular, received large levels of repeat visiting.
It was concluded that the 'whole family' teaching method was justified as both adults and children enjoyed the sessions and Plans perceived that they were learning in the process. It was discovered that the sequences math, talk and handling sections were equally important and generally the talk was favoured by adults and the handling by children (neither group disliked either section). A list of suggested 'Best Practice' guidelines for on Environmental, family handling sessions has been written. Managing enquiries at the British Museum. Enquiry services constitute an Isabella Essay, important part of the pubic service and Management educational duties of any museum. The British Museum, being one of the largest museums in the world, attracts a vast number of public and Medicine specialist enquiries. On Environmental Plans! This study examined how the enquiry services are managed at the British Museum. For this purpose, the managing of enquiries at the departments dealing with the largest numbers of requests were investigated using an interview method. The Successful Development! These departments were: the public services, museum archives, and Essay on Environmental Management Plans curatorial departments. The study found that the British Museum enquiry services are not centrally managed and that the departments dealt with enquiries using individualised approaches. All of the giffen, departments included in the study were very aware of their public and Essay Management Plans educational role in essay courtesy, society and seemed to manage their enquiry services in an effective, efficient and visitor friendly manner.
The way we never were: A study into the role of the museums in creating a national identity in Essay Plans, nineteenth century Norway. In 'The way we never were' I focus on the way the Norwegian national identity was created in the nineteenth century and the process of selecting material for building an official image of the cultural heritage. I give an introduction of three museums from the nineteenth century which were specially important in this process; 'Maihaugen', Norwegian Folk Museum and Family the Oslo Museum of Applied Art. Several persons who were central in the nation building process were also involved in the formation of many museums, and I show how this has influenced the Essay Plans, way these museums presented Norway and the national heritage. In Part Two I look into how Norwegian museums present Norwegians today, and find that many still exhibits the image created in the last century. Some museums are moving away from this though, and we see a tendency to present Norway more 'realistic' and including the ethnic minorities. Original sin? Exhibits of human origins, and how we can make them better: A synthetic approach. Jeremy Matthew Ottevanger.
This dissertation attempts to Queen Isabella of Castilla synthesise a strategy for exhibiting human origins. It draws upon Management three line of evidence: the state of current exhibitions of the subject; the desires of the Family Essay, audience; and the expertise of specialists in the field of Management exhibiting this subject. Critiques of three museums are presented, together with a visitor survey conducted at the Natural History Museum and a report upon interviews with three specialists. Current exhibitions are seen to be diverse in Medicine Essay, their content and means of presentation, as well as in their attitude to learning. Visitors want a broad-ranging exhibition that combines the cultural elements with the biology and places the whole in an evolutionary and environmental context. They would prefer to be offered a synthetic story, but with the option to explore specialist areas in greater depth. The specialists offered advice generally consistent with the survey. The resulting synthesis emphasises breadth of subject matter, multiple means of intellectual access, and Essay Management Plans opportunities for digressing from the sequences math, narrative.
Museums and controversy: A mismatch of perceptions? In recent years there has been a growing trend in many museums both to examine contemporary social histories, and to approach historical narratives in new ways. These new approaches are often linked to initiatives for Plans, museums to become more inclusive and accessible, especially to sections of the community who do not traditionally visit museums. Such approaches inevitably throw up ideas, concepts and issues that many individuals and groups within society may find disquieting or even offensive. Essay Courtesy! If museums are indeed changing their role to that of a public forum, is it possible for Essay Management Plans, them but to approach controversial areas, and can curators hope to avoid stamping their own views and outlooks upon sequences math a finished exhibition? This paper will argue that contentious issues cannot be avoided, primarily because controversy arises from Plans a fundamental mismatch in the way museums are viewed from of Castilla inside and outside the field. Furthermore, it will argue that contentious issues should not be avoided, as this is in danger of being seen as an on Environmental, evasion of on An Look at Afghanistan and Its curatorial responsibility, and that it is Essay on Environmental Management, incomparable with the attempted transformation of museums into public forums. In addition, a study of the exhibition You won't feel a thing: Needles in medical history at the Wellcome Trust will ask whether it offers a 'blueprint' for sequences math, other museums to follow, as the team responsible has tackled contentious issues in the past. Museums and retail activity: A comparative case study of on Environmental Management retail activities in Greece and the UK. No abstract available. The Indian collections in Britain with particular reference to ancient art held in the national museums: Their formation and their relevance to general and Indo-British audiences.
Maria de Pascale. An attempt has been made in this study to follow the 'social life' of the Indian objects collected by the British (mainly during the colonial era), ending up in British collections and museums. The way this art has been gradually accepted into the larger Western art discourse on the one hand reflects the changes that have happened in society and on the other has much to do with cultural fashions that have dominated the West in the last three centuries. The difficulties arising in displaying and Queen Isabella interpreting this art in a meaningful way (both for general audiences and Plans those of South Asian origins) stem from the The Successful Essay, paradox of its having been (partly) accepted into the Western art discourse, and the need to on Environmental Management take into account its nature of a religious art originally intended for popular fruition. The period room: An historical evaluation. This study is concerned with examining the historical development of the period room by sequences math, giving a brief historical outline of this process from Essay Management its origins in the nineteenth century to the present, the Queen of Castilla, aim being to establish whether it remains a valid means of display and Essay Management Plans interpretation for the museum in the 1990s.
Firstly, the origins and sequences math influences of the period room are examined, in Europe and America, in particular tracing the influences of key figures in its birth and development; Alexandre Lenoir, Alexandre du Sommerard, Dr. Artur Hazelius, Henry Ford, John D. Rockefeller and Dr J. L Kirk. To examine how the period room is being used in the 1990s in Britain three case studies are examined: The Irish Room at on Environmental Management Plans the Grange in Neasden, a small temporary display put on in collaboration with the local community; The Roman Gallery at the Museum of London, a reconstruction included in the exhibition on Roman Britain and The 'Lifetimes' Gallery at the Clocktower in Croydon, a exhibition of six tableaux with a period room recreations in each. The question of authenticity is example, addressed as it is a central problem that every museums faces and Essay Plans therefore that the period room has to take into Queen Isabella consideration. Finally, the question is asked whether museums have adapted the period room as a method of interpretation for the 1990s or has it become a historical novelty that is Essay on Environmental Plans, no longer relevant. This is reviewed by examining the historical developments and the evidence gained from the three case studies.
The curator/conservator relationship: The erosion of the curatorial monopoly, and the dynamics of collaboration between museum professional. This dissertation aims to provide an overview of developments in the museums profession. It outlines problems raised by the polemic in perceived roles of curatorial and conservation staff, and their conflict of interest. In the essay courtesy, collaborative culture, which highlights partnerships and on Environmental national and international ventures in working to a common goal, it aims to analyse how effective these programmes are at overcoming traditional boundaries between these disciplines within and between institutions. Four case studies centred in the UK (but with some international element) are provided to highlight themes of collaboration between curatorial and conservation staff. The Poisoned Well of History: An examination of the role of Holocaust Museums in Britain. This dissertation looks at the representation of the Holocaust within museums, and explores whether there is any special relevance for British museums which tackle this subject. The enormous worldwide interest in Essay Inside Look and Its, the Holocaust is discussed, and the implications for museums undertaking exhibitions in this sensitive and controversial area. Four British organisations and their approach to Holocaust exhibits are examined in detail.
The subject is so complex that different approaches may be complementary and equally valid. Collecting in on Environmental Management Plans, the pre-museum era: A study in motivation. The aim of this dissertation was to investigate the motivations for The Successful Development, collecting in the pre-museum age, which in this case was dated up to Essay on Environmental Management Plans the establishment of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, in 1662. Essay On An Inside At Afghanistan And Its Conflict! The pre-museum period was chosen because, in more modern times, we tend to associate collecting either with the educational or conservation role of a museum or with personal interest. Although these motives were not absent in earlier times, they were accompanied and often overshadowed by others which have largely vanished today. A direct comparison between the pre-museum and museum eras was not attempted, owing to the sheer volume of material. The first chapter of the dissertation concentrates on the notion that objects have values and powers which motivate collecting because they can be used to enhance the Management Plans, status, wealth and power of the collector. The second chapter looks at altruistic motives, where public and religious benefaction are evident. The third chapter discusses personal interest, madness and passion as motivating forces.
The dissertation concludes that all three groups of factors can motivate collecting, and that they are often inter-linked and hard to separate. However, one element that appears to be present in all circumstances is the achievement or display of personal power. The first chapter of the dissertation concentrates on the notion that objects have values and powers which motivate collecting because they can be used to Medicine enhance the status, wealth and power of the Essay Management Plans, collector. The second chapter looks at altruistic motives, where public and religious benefaction are evident. The third chapter discusses personal interest, madness, and passion as motivating forces.
The dissertation concludes that all three groups of Queen Essay factors can motivate collecting, and that they are often inter-linked and hard to separate. However, one element that appears to be present in all circumstances is the achievement or display of personal power. Michel Foucault: An analysis of cultural discourse. This dissertation will take the Management, following three books by Michel Foucault as its basis: The Order of Things, The Archaeology of sequences math Knowledge and Language, Counter-Memory, Practice . On Environmental! I will explore and Inside Look at Afghanistan and Its attempt to describe Foucault's analytical methods as explained in these books. Foucault's archaeological analogy and the tools available through his epistemic frameworks will then be applied in order to Essay on Environmental Management examine discursive practice in sequences math, the Renaissance, Classical and modem times. The reciprocal relationship between knowledge and Essay discourse will be examined through contemporary examples of representation and display. Eileen Hooper-Greenhill's Museums and the Shaping of Knowledge will be used throughout in order to compare and contrast a variety of analyses and ideas.
Her evaluation of the Renaissance will be explored, contradicted and supplemented in some ways and the seeds of a modem discourse will emerge in the absence of her analysis of the subject. On An Inside At Afghanistan And Its Conflict! Nevertheless, her use of various models is indispensable and forms an additional framework within which to contemplate the role of culture and its institutions. The ability to formulate different narratives from those postulated by Hooper Greenhill will be shown to shed some light on Foucault's intentions as well as on the value of on Environmental Management Plans his method of analysis. Emphasis will be removed from the actual narratives and placed on the dramatic ruptures which reflect how brittle epistemologies may be. The operation of small museums in the UK.
The topic of this dissertation concerns the operation of small museums in the UK. Such institutions employ a maximum of five paid staff members working either full- or part-time. The research and final conclusions concern museums registered with the Museums and The Successful Essay Galleries Commission's (MGC)Registration scheme. Two case studies have been used to Essay Management Plans illustrate two different attitudes adopted by two small London museums. Queen Isabella Of Castilla Essay! The Ragged School Museum, established by 'laymen' at a remote area of London, has adopted a dynamic approach to its problems. The Wesley's Museum, owned and governed by a prestigious organisation and located in the heart of the City, has not yet found solutions to Essay many of its problems. It has well-written policies and a strong structure but it lacks enthusiasm and adaptability. All small museums face difficulties but opportunities and giffen good example professional advice are now available for them.
A small institution should exploit any offered support in order to secure its operation and development. Collections information in the public arena: A case study between a local and national museum. Charlotte Elizabeth Stone. This dissertation is Plans, a discursive study on the need to move collections information from the internal to the external. In it I examine the issues which surround the process and assess whether there is a demand for such data from the Queen Isabella of Castilla, user. I have chosen to study this in the context of two museums, a national one, The Science Museum and a local one, Reading Museum. Essay On Environmental Plans! These were chosen as examples of practice, because both have the potential assets to Family Medicine explore the idea of information access and each have began discussing methods to carry out such a project.
Chapter one examines the changes in documentation practice, which have given rise to the opportunity of externalising the museum's information core. The second deals with the change in managerial structure, which has attempted to re-define many roles in order to create a more accessible and well-run service. Chapter Three reviews some of the initiatives, (both actual and potential) set up both museums and discusses how far reaching these attempts are. My conclusion summarises the need for public collections information both as a transfer of power from the visitor to the curator and on Environmental Management Plans as a reaction to the demand from this new age. Exemplifications of learning theories in museums with reference to essay courtesy the theories of George Hein. As we enter the twenty-first century the Essay Management Plans, greatest challenge facing museums is to sequences math perform their role as learning institutions effectively. The increased leisure industry, the reduction in core governmental funding and the introduction of the National Curriculum are some of the factors that stressed the necessity for museums to enhance the range and Essay the quality of their educational provision.
The first chapter attempts to describe how learning theories provide an appropriate framework for museum professionals to define learning in the museum environment and consequently to develop exhibitions and educational programs that correspond to the audiences learning needs. Modern developments in essay courtesy, museum educational departments indicate to what extent museum professional are aware of museums role as learning centres. On Environmental Management! Museum education policies and Medicine Essay visitor studies research are of crucial importance for museums ' educational developments. The second chapter deals more specifically with G. Hem's theories and focuses particularly on his suggested four educational approaches: a) didactic, expository education, b) stimulus-response education, c) discovery learning, d) constructivism that derive from the juxtaposition of two continua which the first one classifies the epistemological and the second the learning theories on two extremes. In the third chapter exhibitions are described that each of them represent one type of Hem's educational theories. The galleries and Plans exhibitions selected to show that Hem's educational theories can be put into practice in the museum field are the Origin of Species exhibition of the Natural History Museum, the Challenge of Materials exhibition and the Launch Pad gallery at the Science Museum as also the Museum's of London Prehistoric Gallery. Where it was considered necessary the study focuses specifically on Medicine, one or more exhibits to show more extensively the educational theory's application.
The study took place during the on Environmental Management, last two weeks of August 1998. A review of museum enquiry services offered to Queen Isabella of Castilla the public with special reference to identifications and including a survey of past users of a county museums service. Enquiries have been a neglected area of museum studies. Any published literature on this subject, moreover, dates back to the mid 1980s, or earlier. Essay On Environmental Management! Yet the introduction of Queen information technology has brought about enormous changes in museums. Databases, for example, not only Essay on Environmental Management Plans, benefit the area of collections management, but are now being used in large national museums to enable the visiting public to answer their own enquiries whilst on a visit. Such enquiries may relate to the displays or to sequences math how the visitor finds his or her way around a museum. Remote forms of communication such as the Management, Internet and World Wide Web (WWW) have made it possible for giffen, a member of the Essay on Environmental Management Plans, public in any part of the world to satisfy an enquiry by accessing a museum's web pages or to log an enquiry at any time using e-mail.
This paper will examine some of these new developments. The main emphasis concerning enquiries however, will centre on the identification services offered by museums. Giffen Good! The literature written on Essay on Environmental Management, this subject will be reviewed and some current practices examined. Identification services are time-consuming and viewed by some museum staff as a chore. Essay Courtesy! However, in today's climate of public accountability, there is an onus on museums to examine their practices and Essay on Environmental Management Plans invite the public to comment upon them. The final chapter in The Successful, this paper will examine Hampshire Museums Service's identification service, and Essay on Environmental report the views of some of the subject specialists involved.
The results of a survey based on past users of Hampshire Museums Service's identification will be analysed to evaluate how well the service is performing. Essay Courtesy! Finally, Reading Museums Service's identification service will be discussed as a parallel to Hampshire Museums Services. Fogotten children. Are museums doing enough for Essay on Environmental, children with special educational needs? No abstract available.
A museological approach to the interpretation of historic ships. No abstract available. The aim of this report is to examine the various aspects of museum design and to The Successful Development Essay try to illustrate what changes have occurred over the past three decades. Essay! This has been done using observations made in various galleries in London and elsewhere. The emphasis is on the semiotic and Essay on An and Its Conflict social aspects of design rather than the practical aspects of actually creating a display.
The report shows that subtle changes have occurred, most notably as regards the influence of external designers and commercial design practices in modern museum displays. Other changes noted relate to the increase of commercial sponsorship in museums and the impact of on Environmental increased competition from other leisure activities. Sequences Math! As well as the demands from visitors and Essay Management the National Curriculum for Look at Afghanistan Conflict, more accessible and interactive displays in exhibitions. The report attempts to identify changes that have occurred as regards the Essay Management Plans, use of aesthetic design motifs that can be seen as the products of contemporary fashion and illustrate how these effect the visitors understanding of and attitude towards the display. In conclusion it is noted that changes have occurred and these are often due to forces from outside the essay courtesy, museum. Consideration is also given to Plans how design might progress in the future. The methods, techniques, and conclusions found in on An Look Conflict, individual papers are the work and responsibility of the author of the Essay on Environmental Management Plans, paper, and should in no way be thought to represent the opinion or endorsement of either the Journal of Essay Conservation Museum Studies, the Institute of Archaeology, or University College London. No liability or contract is accepted or implied by the publication of these data. Copyright Institute of Archaeology, University College London 1999.
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David Hogan and Dr. Perilou Goddard, Faculty Advisors Abstract Homonegativity is Essay a term used to describe negative attitudes toward homosexuals. Previous. Cognition and Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Among College Students in Ireland. Abstract This study explored the cognition and attitudes toward homosexuality among college students in Dublin.
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Essay on Essay Plans, Marxian Concept of Classless Society. Essay on Marxian Concept of Classless Society – Karl Marx has been regarded as the on An Inside Look at Afghanistan and Its champion of Essay on Environmental Plans communism and of Castilla an advocate of “classless society.” Marxism is often known as “a philosophy of Management social revolution.” Marx never aspired for a revolution just for the sake of a revolution. He wanted to establish an egalitarian society known for equality and social coherence. He intended to see a “classless society” free from all types of exploitations. He believed that the class struggle would help the establishment of such a society. It is in giffen example this context, the nature of the on Environmental Plans classless society and the manner of establishing it assumes importance. A brief analysis of the Marxian notion of classless society is provided here. Classless Society: A Dream of Marx : In the Marxian thought, the concept of sequences math “classless society” remains as a figment of Essay on Environmental Management imagination of Marx. A classless society devoid of all kinds of exploitation and conflicts is only imaginary. Such a type of society never existed in the past, nor do we find it today.
Marx, who had a deep historical insight, was quite aware of this. Image Source: previews.123rf.com. In spite of this awareness, Marx was cherishing such a dream in his mind. Marx, who had seen the pitiable lot of the workers in the initial stages of the Industrial Revolution, was helplessly aspiring for a classless society. Marx was sufficiently aware of the Existence of Classes : “Classless society” means a society without the antagonistic classes or strata. Giffen Example! It means a society in which the classes with opposing interests such as the land-owners and the landless, workers and management, freemen and slaves, the Plans rich and the poor, exploiters and the exploited, capitalists and labourers, etc. are not found. Such a type of society never existed in the past. The very statement of Marx – “The history of the hitherto existing society is the history of the class struggles’ makes it evident that he knew that classes had been in existence from the very beginning of history. Circumstances Favouring the Emergence of “Classless Society” : As Marx stated, when the human society in its historical development reaches the capitalistic stage of Development Essay production it gets divided into only two classes namely capitalist class [or the Bourgeoisie] and the working class [or the proletariats]. The former one is the “exploiting class” while the Management latter is the “exploited” one.
Their interests always clash and conflict arises. It is this class conflict which is Medicine Essay always responsible for social movements and revolutions. When the class conflict reaches its final stage the workers gain upper hand in it. They become victorious in this struggle and establish their regime. Management! In the initial stages “the dictatorship of the proletariat” will be established and thereafter it prepares the way for the transformation of the Inside society. This transformation finally culminates in the establishment of the classless society. Capitalist System is sure to fall – Marx : Marx was of the opinion that the capitalist system would not last long because it is sowing the seeds of its own destruction. Hence Marx felt that “The prophecy of capitalism is the on Environmental Management Plans prophecy of doom or despair.” About the whole system of The Successful capitalism Coser said, “Thus, the capitalist system enlarges the on Environmental Plans number of workers, brings them together into Essay Inside and Its compact groups, makes them class conscious, supplies them with means of inter-communication on a world-wide scale, reduces their purchasing power, and by increasingly exploiting them, arouses them to organised resistance.” Marx wanted such an Essay on Environmental imperfect system to go at the earliest.
Hence he gave a call for the workers to put an end to it. Medicine Essay! Hence his clarion calls: “workers of the whole world unite, you have nothing to lose, but your chains, you have a world to Essay on Environmental Plans, win.” Marx was very sure of the fall of the capitalist system. Hence he wrote in the “Communist Manifesto”: “The Bourgeoisie produces its own grave-diggers. The fall of the Bourgeoisie and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable.” Establishment of the Classless “Communist” Society : When man has become aware of his loss, of his alienation, as a universal non-human situation, it will be possible for him to proceed to Family Essay, a radical transformation of his situation by a revolution. This revolution will be the Plans prelude to the establishment of communism and the reign of liberty reconquered. “In the place of old Bourgeoisie society with its classes and class antagonisms, there will be an association in which the free development of each is the condition for Family Medicine Essay the free development of all.” The Classless society, then in the Marxist thought, refers to “the ultimate condition of social organisation, expected to occur when true communism is achieved. The classless society is thus the final phase of communism where there will be no classes and no class conflicts.
As per the imagination of Marx, in the communist society, that is going to Essay on Environmental Management Plans, be established after the revolution, the needs of the individuals will be taken proper care. The working principle of the communist society would be: “From each according to his abilities and to each according to his needs.” This type of society provides opportunities which make the people feel that the entire society is at the back of everyone, because it is based on another noble principle namely: “All for each and each for all.” Political Principles of the Classless Society : What is the role of the essay courtesy state in a classless society -? This question is very significant in Essay on Environmental Plans the Marxian thought. This question has given rise to confusions, disputes, controversies, and embarrasments within the Essay on An Inside circle of the communists or the Marxists. Marx was very much pessimistic about the state and had contempt for its role.
He considered it nothing but the “organised means of violence.” According to Marx, “the state represents the dominant class in the society.” The state which is based on exploitation aims to protect the interests of the rich and of the ruling class. About the Essay on Environmental Management Plans role of the Family Medicine Essay state Engels writes: Arising out of class contradictions, “the state becomes the state of the most powerful class; the class which rules in the economics and with its aid becomes also the class which rules in politics and thus acquires new means of holding down and exploiting the on Environmental Plans oppressed class.” It is of Castilla thus clear that the communists themselves regard the state as an instrument of exploitation. Then, what is to be done with the state now-? The “Withering away” of the State in the Socialist Society: The state in its historical development has always stood with the ruling class protecting its interests. Hence Engels stated that socialism should aim at not only removing the classes but also the state. “After the class struggle has resulted in the victory of the proletariat and the establishment of a socialist society, however there will be no further need for such a repressive institution; theoretically, the on Environmental state then, is expected to “wither away.” All that is essay courtesy needed is that the workers should unite and hasten the process of the revolution which will ultimately make the state disappear. It is believed that after the proletarian revolution “the dictatorship of the proletariat” will bring about social and economic justice; then there will be no thesis, anti-thesis and class-war.
One man will not exploit another man, and one class will not exploit another class. Thus the ground will be prepared for the disappearance of the state. “The complete disappearance of the Essay on Environmental Plans state marks the zenith of “Marxian socialism.” “The State is not abolished, it withers Away”: In the Essay Look at Afghanistan Conflict words of Engels, “the state is not abolished, it withers away.” He writes: “The society that will reorganise production on the basis of the free and equal association of the Essay on Environmental Management Plans producers will put the machinery of the state where it will then belong: into the museum of antiquities by the side of the spinning wheel and the bronze axe. Transformation of Inside at Afghanistan and Its Conflict Socialism into Communism under the “Dictatorship of the on Environmental Management Plans Proletariat” : Though the ultimate aim of the revolution is to establish a classless society, the proletariats are going to establish their dictatorship for some time.
This dictatorship which will prevail for a short period will act to transform socialism into communism. In this transitional period, it will seize and centralise means of The Successful Development transport and communication. On Environmental Management! In the temporary phase, labour will be paid according to work, but the ultimate aim is to realise the principle “from each according to his ability and to each according to Essay, his need.” The dictatorship of the proletariat will protect the needs of the working class and provide it socio-economic justice. Thus, “under the loving care of the dictatorship of the proletariat, socialism will blossom into communism. Main Economic Principles of the Classless Society : As it is stated, in the final phase of communism classless social system will appear. In such a social system there will be “one single form of Essay on Environmental Management Plans public ownership of the means of The Successful Development production and full equality of Essay Plans all members of Queen of Castilla Essay society. Under it, the all-round development of people will be accompanied by the growth of the productive forces through continuous progress in science and technology.” In a communist society “the ability of each person will be employed to the greatest benefit of all the people.”
The classless society is one in which all the major industries, commercial establishments, banks, transport and communication systems will be collectively owned and their profits collectively shared. An increase in production or wealth or property will never result in an increase in inequality, but will add to the prosperity of all. Medical, educational, commercial, banking, transport, communication and other facilities are made equally available for all. Their main motto will be “service” and not “profit making.” All landed property will be in the ownership of the society and cultivation will be carried out on co-operative basis. In the whole economic field there will be no scope for exploitation of any kind. Society Meeting the Essay on Environmental Requirements of the People : Classless society ensures uninterrupted progress of society and provides for all the members material and cultural benefits according to their growing needs. Giffen Good! People’s requirements will be satisfied from public sources. Essay! Articles of personal use will be in the full ownership of each member of the society and will be at his disposal.
Every able bodied person will participate in the social labour and thereby ensure the steady growth of the material and spiritual wealth of society. The communist classless society represents the highest form of sequences math organisation of public life. Strengthening of the Societal Power under the Classless Community Society : Classless society is virtually the stateless society. It does not mean that there will be nothing but chaos in Essay on Environmental Plans such a society. It will by no means be a society of anarchy, idleness and inactivity. On the contrary, people’s organisations will evolve on a voluntary basis to Isabella of Castilla, look into the needs of the Essay Management Plans masses. These organisations will have “only a social base” and not a political one. The rights, freedom, honour and dignity of the citizens will be closely protected by the society with the help of Essay Inside Look at Afghanistan and Its Conflict these organisations. Classless society is a homogeneous society: According to Marx, the elimination of the distinction between classes makes for greater homogeneity of society.
All people will have equal status in society and will stand in the same relation to the means of production. All will actively participate in the management of public affairs for there is no scope for the re-emergence of the class system. Marx was of the firm belief that in a classless communist society “Harmonious relations will be established between the individual and society……. Classless communist society will, thus, constitute the highest form of organisation of the human community. For all their diversity, the requirements of people will express the Essay on Environmental Plans sound reasonable requirements of the fully developed person.”
Critical Evaluation of the sequences math Marxian “Theory of Classless Society” : 1. Marxian theory of classless society is regarded as the weakest link in on Environmental Management Plans his thought system. Marx was a strong advocate of change. He had great convictions and faith in his thoughts. This faith made him project his own concept of an ideal society, the communist classless society. His view that the historic social revolution will take the people to “the brave new world” remains only a product of his wishful thinking.
Establishment of socialism in sequences math a few of the countries [such as Russia that is, U.S.S.R. of Plans 1917-1990, China, Poland, etc.] does not reveal as yet any desire to move “from the kingdom of necessity to the kingdom of freedom” [Lenin]. It only remains as an unfulfilled desire of the communists such as Lenin. 2. Classless society of on An Inside at Afghanistan Marxian vision is Essay Management Plans not to be seen anywhere in the so called communist world even after more than 120 years of death of Marx. His prophecy relating to on An Inside Look Conflict, the “withering am] of the state” has not come true. Management Plans! As a matter of fact, in the communist nations today, the state is increasing its power and authority day by day. 3. Medicine Essay! Marx’s theory of a classless society is Management a kind of Utopian dream. Marxian utopianism is also not regarded as his original ideal. According to Bogardus, Marxian communism is the result of the Plato’s communism and Moore’s “Utopianism.” 4. Marxian concept of classless society remains only as a political instrument in the hands of the communists.
This concept is being misused for Isabella of Castilla Essay gaining political benefits. It is thus reduced to the level of a tool of Essay on Environmental Management political propaganda. 5. Essay Courtesy! “Like all dogmas, Marxism is strong in what it asserts and weak in what it denies.” Marx was, “at his best only when he was thundering as a prophet against the capitalists.” 6. Durkheim considered Marxian socialism as the theory worthy of being rejected: Durkheim showed interest in Marxian socialism, but his concept of socialism was different from that of Marx’s. “He did not see the proletariat as the on Environmental Management Plans salvation of society, and Family Medicine Essay he was greatly opposed to agitation or violence.” He regarded socialism as a movement worthy of being launched for the moral rejuvenation of society and not for obtaining temporary political gains through a violent revolution. He regarded Marxian socialism as “a set of disputable and out-of-date hypothesis” – [Lukes], In spite of its failures and shortcomings, both theoretical and practical, the theory of the classless communist society makes an Essay on Environmental Plans appeal to an increasing number. It has had a tremendous appeal to the people with a sense of social justice. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com!
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